“Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a men’s character, give him power.” Said Abraham Lincoln This aptly applies to the Managing Committee of a society. Once the power comes neighbor becomes your Master. There are many incidents where the committee manipulates bills and contracts, and even in redevelopment cases three honorary office bearers Secretary, Chairman, and Treasurer have weightage in the finalization of the deal. We see litigations and stalling of projects of a housing society. Human tendency is such that they think of self-gain, instead of taking care and executing responsibilities that they have taken with utmost care and truthfulness. Corrupt minds see financial benefits in every deal. They forget that while doing this they prejudice the property and interests of other flat members. Election: 1 With the new election rules, an election is held similarly to the way in which how elections are held in any Assembly and Parliament. Cartel is formed and elections are won. It has killed the neighborhood’s love, respect, and honor. One family and one flat provision are also violated royally. Even if distant relatives or cousins have a cartel. This creates a monopoly in management. Suggestion: Like Multi Co-operative society, provide that same member or any other joint member from one flat cannot contest the consecutive election. The flat owners/member must take a break or drop out from the next election to give an opportunity to other flat owners/members. So, after serving for 5 years the said member/flat owner cannot contest election for immediate subsequent another term. This will reduce the monopoly of a few flat owners and their families, and their friends. For the convenience of the readers and lawmakers reproduced below is the provision of the Multi-State Cooperative Societies Act,2002 below which restricts reelection after two terms. Prohibition to hold the office of chairperson or president or vice chairperson or vice president in certain cases (1) No member of a board shall be eligible to be elected as the chairperson or president or vice-chairperson or vice-president of a multi-state cooperative society if such member is a Minister in the Central Government or a State Government. (2) No member of a board shall be eligible to be elected as the chairperson or president of a multi-state cooperative society, after he has held the office as such during two consecutive terms, whether full or part: Provided that a member who has ceased to hold the office of the chairperson or president continuously for one full term shall again be eligible for election to the office as such. Explanation:- where any member holding the office of the chairperson or president at the commencement of this Act is against elected to that office after such commencement, he shall for the purpose of this section, be deemed to have held office for one term before such election. Proposed Suggestion : A similar principle must be applied to the housing society. A.2 A Managing Committee was disqualified for 5 years, and an administrator was appointed. Managing Committee manages to suppress the facts from members of the society and manages that the […]Read more
Today we are going to discuss unique issues relating to a housing society. Human beings when getting even a little bit of power, behave like King-Queen. This is normal psychology. Taking into consideration this psychology and jurisprudence every law is enacted. Now we shall deal with the questions individually WHAT ARE THE PROVISIONS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TRANSFER/TRANSMISSION OF SHARES UNDER MAHARASHTRA CO-OPERATIVE HOUSING SOCIETY LAWS? ( MAHARASHTRA) Following are the relevant provisions of the Maharashtra Housing Society for transfer and transmission of shares and interest in the society. Open membership.— (1) No society shall, without sufficient cause, refuse admission to membership to any person duly qualified therefore under the provisions of this Act and its bye-laws. (1-A) Where a society refuses to accept the application from an eligible person for admission as a member, or the payment made by him in respect of membership, such person may tender an application in such form as may be prescribed together with payment in respect of membership, if any, to the Registrar, who shall forward the application and the amount, if any so paid, to the society concerned within thirty days from the date of receipt of such application and the amount; and thereupon if the society fails to communicate any decision to the applicant within sixty days from the date of receipt of such application and the amount by the society, the applicant shall be deemed to have become a member of such society. If any question arises whether a person has become a deemed member or otherwise, the same shall be decided by the Registrar after giving a reasonable opportunity of being heard to all the concerned parties. (2) Any person aggrieved by the decision of a society, refusing him admission to its membership, may appeal to the Registrar. Every such appeal, as far as possible, be disposed of by the Registrar within a period of three months from the date of its receipt: Provided that, where such appeal is not so disposed of within the said period of three months, the Registrar shall record the reasons for the delay. (3) The decision of the Registrar in appeal, shall be final and the Registrar shall communicate his decision to the parties within fifteen days from the date thereof: (4) Without prejudice to the foregoing provisions of this section, in the case of agro-processing societies or any other society for which a definite zone or an area of operation is allotted by the State Government or the Registrar, it shall be obligatory on the part of such society to admit, on an application made to it, every eligible person from that zone or the area of operation, as the case may be, as a member of such society, unless such person is already registered as a member of any other such society, into the same zone or the area of operation. Restrictions on transfer or charge on share or interest.— (1) Subject to the provisions of the last preceding section as to the maximum holding of shares and to any rules made in this behalf, a transfer of, or charge on, […]Read more
Nowadays youngsters want to do something new to be some news. Especially Hindus want to break traditions which they are doing since colonial rule. We read in the newspaper a couple got married by taking oath on Constitution and some news girl refused to perform “Kanya Daan” as she wants to remain being Papa ki Pari. Love has no boundaries may it be daughter and father. Till a family has only one daughter things are smooth, but there are twirls and twists if a family also has a son. Then the daughter-in-law is also her Papa ki Pari. Well, let’s now turn to the captioned question. How adventurous, heroic and courageous to break the traditions which are part of our Vedic scriptures. What does the law say? Hindus have two types of schools. Mitakshara and Dayabhaga Dayabhaga is followed in West Bengal and Mitakshara in the rest of India. The difference is about inheritance. Now let us understand provisions of the Hindu Marriage Act,1955 Section 3 deals with definitions. Definitions.—In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,— (a) the expressions “custom” and “usage” signify any rule which, having been continuously and uniformly observed for a long time, has obtained the force of law among Hindus in any local area, tribe, community, group or family: Provided that the rule is certain and not unreasonable or opposed to public policy, and Provided further that in the case of a rule applicable only to a family it has not been discontinued by the family. What are the conditions of marriage under Hindu Law? Conditions for a Hindu marriage.—A marriage may be solemnized between any two Hindus, if the following conditions are fulfilled, namely:— (i) neither party has a spouse living at the time of the marriage; [(ii) at the time of the marriage, neither party— (a) is incapable of giving a valid consent to it in consequence of unsoundness of mind; or (b) though capable of giving valid consent, has been suffering from mental disorder of such a kind or to such an extent as to be unfit for marriage and the procreation of children; or (c) has been subject to recurrent attacks of insanity ***;] (iii) the bridegroom has completed the age of [twenty-one years] and the bride, the age of [eighteen years] at the time of the marriage; (iv) the parties are not within the degrees of prohibited relationship unless the custom or usage governing each of them permits of a marriage between the two; (v) the parties are not sapindas of each other unless the custom or usage governing each of them permits of a marriage between the two; Ceremonies for a Hindu marriage.—(1) A Hindu marriage may be solemnized in accordance with the customary rites and ceremonies of either party thereto. (2) Where such rites and ceremonies include the Saptapadi (that is, the taking of seven steps by the bridegroom and the bride jointly before the sacred fire), the marriage becomes complete and binding when the seventh step is taken. TO EXPOUND AND EXPLAIN THE CEREMONIES UNDER VEDIC SCRIPTURES: There is no standard Hindu marriage ceremony. Regional variation is […]Read more
When I wrote a negative comment about Aryan Khan on Facebook, I was taken a back by a question why Sadhus drug themselves. This was asked none other than a Hindu may be pseudo-secular or the one who made Khans rule over this country though being Khan by a dialogue “ I am Khan and I am not a terrorist”. Our generation is not knowledgeable may be literate. Literacy means which generates a lot of wealth in terms of money. I then did research and I recalled having read Sam Ved in Gujarati. Som Ras and Som Paan is an integral part of Aryans. Bhang is offered to Lord Shiv as it heals his pain of consuming poisonous substances during Samudra Manthan. In general, devotees offer even milk to relive his sufferings which Lord Shiv consumed to save the universe. Indian history and Hindu Aryan culture have the tradition to use cannabis, bhang, and other plants as medicine. The mention is found in Atharva Ved. There is also mention of Soma Paan by Indra Dev Sukta 56 – 5348. Consumption of Soma Ras made from herbs on the holy mountain of Himalaya gives the different abilities and sparkling personality. It was used as medicine for different diseases and during surgery in ancient India. The mention is in Sushrut Samhita. There is also mention of Madya Paan in Chandipath in Adhyay 3 mantra 34-35 where the supreme powered goddess consumes Madhypan before elimination of devil Mahishasur. Cannabis and its derivatives (marijuana, hashish/charas, and bhang) were legally sold in India until 1985, and their recreational use was commonplace. Consumption of cannabis was not seen as socially deviant behavior and was viewed as being similar to the consumption of alcohol. Ganja and Charas were considered by upper-class Indians as the poor man’s intoxicant, although the rich consumed bhang during Holi. The United States began to campaign for a worldwide law against all drugs, following the adoption of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs in 1961. Article 49 of the Convention required Parties to completely abolish, over a maximum period of 25 years from the coming into force of the Convention, all quasi-medical use of opium, opium smoking, coca leaf chewing, and non-medical cannabis use. All production and manufacture of these drugs were also to be abolished within the same time periods. Only Parties for which such uses were “traditional” could take advantage of the delayed implementation; for others, prohibition was immediate. As the maximum time ended in 1989, these practices are today fully prohibited, and the drugs may be used only for domestically regulated medical and scientific purposes. However, India opposed the move and withstood American pressure to make cannabis illegal for nearly 25 years. American pressure increased in the 1980s, and in 1985, the Rajiv Gandhi government succumbed and enacted the NDPS Act, banning all narcotic drugs in India. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ANCIENT INDIAN CANNABIS AND TODAY’S NARCOTIC SUBSTANCE? In ancient India, Som Paan was enjoyed by supreme lords and kings as they had to fight devils and evil forces, which we discussed above. There was no “Drug abuse” […]Read more
UNDER INDIAN LAW ONLY SIGNATORIES TO THE AGREEMENT INVARIABLY PROPER PARTIES TO THE ARBITRATION AGREEMENT? DOES INTERNATIONAL PRINCIPLES OF “GROUP OF COMPANIES” APPLY TO INDIAN ARBITRATION ?
Provisions of Law discussed: Now let us first see what does Act mean by an Agreement and what is format of an Arbitration Agreement? Arbitration Act,1996 7 Arbitration agreement. — (1) In this Part, “arbitration agreement” means an agreement by the parties to submit to arbitration all or certain disputes which have arisen or which may arise between them in respect of a defined legal relationship, whether contractual or not. (2) An arbitration agreement may be in the form of an arbitration clause in a contract or in the form of a separate agreement. (3) An arbitration agreement shall be in writing. (4) An arbitration agreement is in writing if it is contained in— (a) a document signed by the parties; (b) an exchange of letters, telex, telegrams or other means of telecommunication which provide a record of the agreement; or (c) an exchange of statements of claim and defence in which the existence of the agreement is alleged by one party and not denied by the other. (5) The reference in a contract to a document containing an arbitration clause constitutes an arbitration agreement if the contract is in writing and the reference is such as to make that arbitration clause part of the contract. PARITIES TO ARBITRATION: 8.Power to refer parties to arbitration where there is an arbitration agreement.—1 [(1)A judicial authority, before which an action is brought in a matter which is the subject of an arbitration agreement shall, if a party to the arbitration agreement or any person claiming through or under him, so applies not later than the date of submitting his first statement on the substance of the dispute, then, notwithstanding any judgment, decree or order of the Supreme Court or any Court, refer the parties to arbitration unless it finds that prima facie no valid arbitration agreement exists.] (2) The application referred to in sub-section (1) shall not be entertained unless it is accompanied by the original arbitration agreement or a duly certified copy thereof: 2 [Provided that where the original arbitration agreement or a certified copy thereof is not available with the party applying for reference to arbitration under sub-section (1), and the said agreement or certified copy is retained by the other party to that agreement, then, the party so applying shall file such application along with a copy of the arbitration agreement and a petition praying the Court to call upon the other party to produce the original arbitration agreement or its duly certified copy before that Court.] (3) Notwithstanding that an application has been made under sub-section (1) and that the issue is pending before the judicial authority, an arbitration may be commenced or continued and an arbitral award made. PART II ENFORCEMENT OF CERTAIN FOREIGN AWARDS CHAPTER I New York Convention Awards Power of judicial authority to refer parties to arbitration.—Notwithstanding anything contained in Part I or in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908),a judicial authority, when seized of an action in a matter in respect of which the parties have made an agreement referred to in section 44, shall, at the request of one […]Read more
MODEL TENANCY ACT AND ABSENCE OF DEFINITION OF “LEAVE AND LICENSE” DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LICENSE AND TENANCY HOW TO DETERMINE?
Model Tenancy Act 2020 does not contain definition of Leave and License, why? This question crops up in layman’s mind. The definition of Leave and License is found in Section 52 of Indian Easement Act,1882. It defines term License as under: “License” defined. -Where one person grants to another, or to a definite number of other persons, a right to do, or continue to do, in or upon the immovable property of the grantor, something which would, in the absence of such right, be unlawful, and such right does not amount to an easement or an interest in the property, the right is called a license. Maharashtra Rent Control Act,2000 defines term Licensee as under 7 (5) “Licensee”, in respect of any premises or any part thereof, means the person who is in occupation of the premises or such part, as the case may be, under a subsisting agreement for licence given for a licence fee or charge; and includes any person in such occupation of any premises or part thereof in a building vesting in or leased to a co-operative housing society registered or deemed to be registered under the Maharashtra Co-operative Societies Act, 1960; but does not include a paying guest, a member of a family residing together, a person in the service or employment of the licenser, or a person conducting a running business belonging to the licenser or a person having any accommodation for rendering or carrying on medical or para-medical services or activities in or near a nursing home, hospital, or sanitarium or a person having any accommodation in a hotel, lodging house, hostel, guest house, club, nursing home, hospital, sanitarium, dharmashala, home for widows, orphans or like premises, marriage or public hall or like premises, or in a place of amusement or entertainment or like institution, or in any premises belonging to or held by an employee or his spouse who on account of exigencies of service or provisions of residence attached to his or her post or office is temporarily not occupying the premises, provided that he or she charges licence fee or charge for such premises of the employee or spouse not exceeding the standard rent and permitted increase for such premises, and any additional sum for service supplied with such premises or a person having accommodation in any premises or part thereof for conducting a canteen, creche, dispensary or other services as amenities by any undertaking or institution; and the expressions “licence”, “licenser” and “premises given on licence” shall be construed accordingly; Delhi Rent Control Act,1995 defines term is Section 2(n) (ii) any person to whom a licence as defined in section 52 of the Indian Easements Act, 1882 (5 of 1882 .) has been granted; I did not find more such provision in different states rent laws except this two. Under the English law the terms “tenant”, “licence” and “licensee” are not defined and so in every case where the English Courts are called upon to consider whether the relationship between the parties before them is that of landlord and tenant or licensor and licensee, they have always to decide […]Read more
JUDICIAL ACTIVISM AFFECTING ORIGINAL SCOPE OF DUTIES? An analysis based on Article 138 of the Constitution :
My Quote: We must consider a person whose money and land is blocked in litigation dies everyday. Article 138. Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court (1) The Supreme Court shall have such further jurisdiction and powers with respect to any of the matters in the Union List as Parliament may by law confer (2) The Supreme Court shall have such further jurisdiction, and powers with respect to any matter as the Government of India and the Government of any State may by special agreement confer, if Parliament by law provides for the exercise of such jurisdiction and powers by the Supreme Court Poetic Justice: English drama critic Thomas Rymer coined the phrase in The Tragedies of the Last Age Consider’d (1678) to describe how a work should inspire proper moral behavior in its audience by illustrating the triumph of good over evil. The demand for poetic justice is consistent in Classical authorities and shows up in Horace, Plutarch, and Quintillian, so Rymer’s phrasing is a reflection of a commonplace. Philip Sidney, in The Defence of Poesy (1595) argued that poetic justice was, in fact, the reason that fiction should be allowed in a civilized nation. But Indian Civilization believes in Karma which was much much prior to theory of poetic justice: And here they say that a person consists of desires, and as is his desire, so is his will; and as is his will, so is his deed; and whatever deed he does, that he will reap. : Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, 7th century BCE Judicial Activism: During #pandemic #Covid19India Judiciary played active role. As such over last 15 years there is more judicial activism. When we change or expand horizon we need more efficiency, professionalism, workforce, intellect, reduction in procedure and process, and also with today’s time we need modern technology. We have in last decade seen Judiciary calling #AirChiefMarshal for questioning on #Rafaeldeal We saw courts ordering change in 1000 years custom and usage in case of #shabarimala At the same time #NJAC was struck down. There is Judicial activism seen by way of PILs and suo motu cognizance. However the fundament duty of Judiciary has seen serious backlog. May it be suit, appeal or execution. We cannot value the total amount stuck in financial recovery cases, and land cases pending in various courts across India. Common citizens discuss but do not debate because of scare of law. I am referring these sequences of events because recently Bombay High Court said if people die of lack of oxygen it’s violative of Article 21. What does it provide? Article 21 in The Constitution of India 1949 gives Protection of life and personal liberty No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law. Backlog of Cases violate of Constitutional Rights? there is report which requires serious considerations even by those who are executing duties under oath. https://prsindia.org/policy/vital-stats/pendency-cases-judiciary which says: In 2016, compared to 2006, number of cases disposed of increased approximately from 57,000 to 76,000 in Supreme Court; from 14.4 lakh cases to 16 lakh cases in High Courts and from […]Read more
Constituent Assembly: The freedom of press, as one of the members of the Constituent Assembly said, is one of the items around which the greatest and the bitterest of constitutional struggles have been waged in all countries where liberal constitutions prevail. The said freedom is attained at considerable sacrifice and suffering and ultimately it has come to be incorporated in the various written constitutions. James Madison when he offered the Bill of Rights to the Congress in 1789 is reported as having said: ‘The right of freedom of speech is secured, the liberty of the press is expressly declared to be beyond the reach of this Government’. ‘(See 1 Annals of Congress (1789-96) p. 141). Halsbury’s Law of England “Any act or Omission which obstructs any member or officer of the House in the discharge of their duties, or which has a tendency to produce such a result would constitute contempt of legislature” Earl Jowitt, (Lord Chancellor of Great Britain since 1945-51) defines the privilege in the following words, “An exceptional right of advantage, an exemption from some duty, burden or attendance to which certain persons are entitled, from a supposition of the law that the stations they fill or the offices they are engaged in, are such as require all their care, and that therefore, without this indulgence, it would be impracticable to execute such offices so advantageously as the public good requires”. In his book ‘Law Custom and Constitution’ Anson points out that, “The rules of which they (the privileges) consists are not readily ascertainable, for they obtain legal definition when they are cast in statutory form, or when a conflict between the House and the Courts have resulted in some questions of privilege being settled by judicial decisions”. Unlike England where privileges are uncodified in India its codified in the Constitution in Article 105 and 194. However what constitutes breach is uncodified. “A freedom of such amplitude might involve risks of abuse. But the framers of the Constitution may well have reflected, with Madison who was “the leading spirit in the preparation of the First Amendment of the Federal Constitution,” that “it is better to leave a few of its noxious branches to their luxuriant growth, than, by pruning them away, to injure the vigour of those yielding the proper fruits.”: [Quoted in Near v. Minnesotta] Blackstone in his Commentaries, “the liberty of the press consists in laying no previous restraint upon publications, and not in freedom from censure for criminal matter when published. Every free man has an undoubted right to say what sentiments he pleases before the public; to forbid this, is to destroy the freedom of the press.” Fundamental Rights vested under Constitution of India Amongst others inter-alia the Fundamental Rights relating to Freedom of Speech and Liberty are enshrined in Articles 19 to 22. Right to Freedom (Articles 19 – 22) Freedom is one of the most important ideals cherished by any democratic society. The Indian Constitution guarantees freedom to citizens. The freedom right includes many rights such as: Freedom of speech Freedom of expression Freedom of assembly without arms Freedom of association […]Read more
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) An International Seabed Authority WHAT IS UNCLOS The International Seabed Authority (ISA) is an autonomous international organization established under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the 1994 Agreement relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1994 Agreement). ISA which has its headquarters in Kingston, Jamaica, came into existence on 16 November 1994, upon the entry into force of UNCLOS. ISA became fully operational as an autonomous international organization in June 1996, when it took over the premises and facilities in Kingston, Jamaica previously used by the United Nations Kingston Office for the Law of the Sea. The sovereignty of a coastal State extends, beyond its land territory and internal waters and, in the case of an archipelagic State, its archipelagic waters, to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea. This sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as to its bed and subsoil. The sovereignty over the territorial sea is exercised subject to this Convention and to other rules of international law The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982. The convention was opened for signature on 10 December 1982 and entered into force on 16 November 1994 upon deposition of the 60th instrument of ratification. The convention has been ratified by 168 parties, which includes 167 states (164 United Nations member states plus the UN Observer state Palestine, as well as the Cook Islands and Niue) and the European Union. An additional 14 UN member states have signed, but not ratified the convention. Subsequently, the “Agreement relating to the implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea” was signed in 1994, amending the original Convention. The agreement has been ratified by 150 parties (all of which are parties to the Convention), which includes 149 states (146 United Nations member states plus the UN Observer state Palestine, as well as the Cook Islands and Niue) and the European Union. An additional three UN member states (Egypt, Sudan, USA) have signed, but not ratified the agreement. As per Article 4 of the Agreement, following adoption of the Agreement any state which ratifies the convention also becomes a party to the Agreement. Additionally, only states which are parties to the Convention can ratify the Agreement. Breadth of the territorial sea Every State has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles, measured from baselines determined in accordance with this Convention. Outer limit of the territorial sea The outer limit of the territorial sea is the line every point of which is at a distance from the nearest point of the baseline equal to the breadth of the territorial sea. Normal baseline Except where otherwise provided in this Convention, the normal baseline for measuring […]Read more