Shruti Desai


February 13, 2024

To understand the case query we must first learn the provisions of the Indian Succession Act of 1925 IS AN EXECUTOR A TRUSTEE? “There is a distinction between a trustee and an executor, in that the former has only the power to pay what is vested in him as trustee to the persons for whose use he holds it, but has no general power to receive and pay what is due to and from the estate, which is the office of the latter (vide paragraph 13, p. 12 of Williams). The same proposition appears in Halsbury’s Laws of England (3rd Edn., Vol. 16, p. 124, in paragraph 180)” Provisions of Indian Succession Act 1925 Sec 222:  Probate only to appoint an executor. (1) Probate shall be granted only to an executor appointed by the will. (2) The appointment may be expressed or by necessary implication. Illustrations (i) A wills that C be his executor if B will not. B is appointed executor by implication. (ii) A gives a legacy to B and several legacies to other persons, among the rest to his daughter-in-law C, and adds “but should the within-named C be not living I do constitute and appoint B my whole and sole executrix”. C is appointed executrix by implication. (iii) A appoints several persons executors of his will and codicils and his nephew residuary legatee, and in another codicil are these words,– “I appoint my nephew my residuary legatee to discharge all lawful demands against my will and codicils signed of different dates”. The nephew is appointed an executor by implication. Grant of administration of universal or residuary legatees.— When—(a)the deceased has made a Will, but has not appointed an executor, or (b)the deceased has appointed an executor who is legally incapable or refuses to act, or who has died before the testator or before he has proved the Will, or (c)the executor dies after having proved the will, but before he has administered all the estate of the deceased, a universal or a residuary legatee may be admitted proving the Will and letters of administration with the Will annexed may be granted to him of the whole estate, or of so much thereof as may be unadministered.  Narration:  Thus, the test for finding out whether a person is an executor according to the tenor is to find out whether he is, by necessary implication, nominated by the testator in his stead to generally administer the estate and to pay the testator’s debts and to receive his dues in the performance of his will. An executor is placed in the stead of the testator and he has the right of action against the testator’s debtors and has also the right to dispose of the goods of the testator towards the payment of his debts and the performance of his will. An executor need not be expressly nominated; and if by necessary implication the testator recommends or commits to one or more the charge and office, or the rights which appertain to an executor, it amounts to as much as the ordaining or constituting him or them to be […]

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February 6, 2024

  Data privacy is a law and it’s in force. It came into force on 11th August 2023. Recently an election process was held for electing a Mayor in Chandigarh Municipality. The issue started with Presiding Officer Anil Mansinh looking at surveillance camera and mainly ruling Aam Adami Party lost Mayoral post. Hence an issue is raised that returning officer defaced the ballot papers. The AAP approached the Supreme Court and upon seeing the video a judgment is drawn that returning officer Anil Mansinh tempered the ballot paper. There are two issues: The video presented in court is available on social media platform and all are interpreting the way they want. This is breach of #dataprivacy. How we will discuss here. Can court become judgmental by declaring returning officer guilty without scrutinizing the records? Is court pre-decisive and judgmental in this case?   DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS: [A] The video presented in court is available on social media platform and all are interpreting the way they want. This is breach of #dataprivacy. While answering point No.i let us go back to recent history of constitution bench judgment in which current CJI was a part of it. Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) & Anr. vs. Union of India & Ors. (2017), also known as the Right to Privacy verdict, is a landmark decision of the Supreme Court of India, held that, the right to privacy is protected as a fundamental right under Articles 14, 19 and 21 of the Constitution of India. A nine-judge bench of J. S. Khehar, J. Chelameswar, S. A. Bobde, R. K. Agrawal, R. F. Nariman, A. M. Sapre, D. Y. Chandrachud, S. K. Kaul, and S. A. Nazeer unanimously held that “the right to privacy is protected as an intrinsic part of the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 and as a part of the freedoms guaranteed by Part III of the Constitution.” It explicitly overruled previous judgements of the Supreme Court in Kharak Singh vs. State of UP and M.P. Sharma vs. Union of India, which held that there is no fundamental right to privacy under the Indian Constitution. This judgment settled this position of law and clarified that the Right to Privacy could be infringed upon only when there was a compelling state interest in doing so. This position was the same as with the other fundamental rights . Supreme Court ruled that Right to Privacy is “intrinsic to life and personal liberty” and is inherently protected under Article 21 and as a part of the freedoms guaranteed by Part III of the Constitution. DATA PROTECTION: Central Government passed an Act to provide for the processing of digital personal data in a manner that recognises both the right of individuals to protect their personal data and the need to process such personal data for lawful purposes and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. The definition of the term data under this Act is as under : (h) “data” means a representation of information, facts, concepts, opinions or instructions in a manner suitable for communication, interpretation or processing by human beings or by […]

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January 9, 2024

BILKIS BANU JUDGEMENT AN ANALYSIS Yesterday two Judges bench passed an order setting aside remission given by the Gujarat High Court on the recommendation of the Gujarat Government under Section 432 (7) (b) of the Code of Civil Procedure 1973 in the matter of Bilkis Banu vs Union of India. But there is different view of 5 Judges Constitution Bench in Murugan Vs Union of India . This law needs more clarification. Brief History : These writ petitions was filed assailing the Orders dated 10.08.2022, granting remission and early release of respondent Nos.3 to 13 in Writ Petition (Crl.) No.491 of 2022 (which petition shall be considered to be the lead petition), who were all convicted, having been found guilty of committing heinous crimes during the large-scale riots in Gujarat on 28.02.2002 and a few days thereafter which occurred in the aftermath of the burning of the train incident in Godhra in the State of Gujarat on 27.02.2002. The crime in question was driven by communal hatred and resulted in twelve convicts, amongst many Writ Petition (Crl.) No.491 of 2022 Etc. others, brutally gang-raping the petitioner in Writ Petition (Crl.) No.491 of 2022, namely, Bilkis Yakub Rasool, who was pregnant at that time. Further, the petitioner’s mother was gang raped and murdered, her cousin who had just delivered a baby was also gang raped and murdered. Eight minors including the petitioner’s cousin’s two-day-old infant were also murdered. The petitioner’s three-year-old daughter was murdered by smashing her head on a rock, her two minor brothers, two minor sisters, her phupha, phupi,mama (uncle, aunt and uncle respectively) and three-cousins were all murdered. Cause of Action Bilkis Yakub Rasool, being an unfortunate victim of the heinous crimes  filed the  writ petition under Article 32 of the Constitution of India, seeking issuance of a writ, order, or direction quashing the Orders dated 10.08.2022 passed by the State of Gujarat by which the convicts in Sessions Case No.634 of 2004, Mumbai (respondent Nos.3 to 13 herein), whose convictions were upheld by a Division Bench of the Bombay High Court and thereafter by Supreme Court. On 28.06.2022, the Department of Home Affairs, Government of Gujarat, addressed a letter to the Secretary, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, seeking sanction from the Government of India on the proposal for the premature release of the prisoners, respondent Nos.3 to 13.  By letter dated 11.07.2022, the Ministry of Home Affairs, The government of India conveyed its approval under Section 435 of the CrPC for the premature release of all 11 convicts, respondent Nos.3 to 13. Pursuant to the concurrence of the Central Government, the State of Gujarat issued the impugned orders dated 10.08.2022. In the above background,  writ petitions were filed, praying, inter-alia, for issuance of a writ, order, or direction, quashing the Orders dated 10.08.2022 LEGAL ISSUE INVOLVED It was asserted inter-alia that though the crime was committed in the State of Gujarat, the investigation and trial were carried out in the State of Maharashtra under the orders of this Court. Hence, given the language of Section 432(7)(b), only the state of Maharashtra would be the appropriate […]

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January 3, 2024

TOWER BUILDINGS IN MUMBAI BLISS OR BANE Mumbai was a peaceful place, with sophisticated and cool roads. Tall towers are now new skylines in Mumbai. Jam-packed traffic, roads on ventilators, metro, and coastal roads adorn the site of Mumbai city. Redevelopment of the old building is a booming business now. They are given TDR and additional FSI. But what if this tower falls or collapses? What if the SRA building collapsed and became unsafe? Is there any provision? How such towers will be constructed? What are the rights of flatholders and member’s? Will Insurance save the flat holders’ future? Before answering so many questions let us see the inter-alia relevant provisions of newly framed Development Control Rules for Greater Mumbai. Provisions relating to underdevelopment Control and Promotion Regulation 2034 [ DCPR 2034]. 33(6) Reconstruction of buildings destroyed by fire, or which have collapsed, or which have been demolished under lawful order Reconstruction of buildings that existed on or after 10th June 1977 and have ceased to exist for reasons cited above, shall be allowed to be reconstructed with FSI as per the Regulation No 30(C). Provided that if the area covered under a staircase/lift has not been claimed free of FSI as per the then prevailing Regulation as per the occupation plan, the area covered under staircases/lifts shall be considered while arriving at protected BUA in such cases the premium for entire staircase lift area in the proposed building as per these Regulations shall be recovered. This FSI will be subject to the following conditions: Reconstruction of the new building on the plot should conform to provisions of DP and these Regulations. Reconstruction will be subject to an agreement executed by at least 70 percent of the landlords and occupants each in the original building, within the meaning of the Mumbai Rents, Hotel and Lodging House Rates Control Act, 1947, and such the agreement shall make a provision for accommodation and re-accommodate the said landlord/all occupants in the new building on agreed terms and a certificate from a practicing advocate having a minimum of 10 years’ experience, is submitted confirming that on the date of application, reconstruction, agreements are executed by at least 70% of the landlords and occupants each in the original building with the developer/owner. The Advocate shall also certify that the agreements with occupants are valid and subsisting on the date of application. The Carpet area of residential/non-residential premises may be altered with the consent of occupants. Reconstruction shall be disallowed on set-back areas or areas required for road-widening and such areas shall be handed over to the Corporation. These provisions shall not apply to buildings wholly occupied by warehouses and godowns. If the building is reconstructed with existing FSI/BUA prior to its collapse/demolition, then the requirements of front & marginal open spaces shall be as per the Regulation No.41(5) of these Regulations. Provisions of R.No.41(5) is as under: Provisions in open spaces for plots in Reconstruction/Redevelopment Schemes under the Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority Act, 1976, Slum Rehabilitation Authority and Redevelopment Scheme of municipal tenanted properties; in case of DCR 3(5),33(6),33(7),33(7)(A),33(7)(B),33(9),33(9)(A),33(9)(B),33(10), 33(10)(A),33(11),33(15)and 33(20)(A): The following […]

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November 8, 2023

MEDIATION ACT 2023- PATH TOWARDS PEACE PART- I- MEDIATION Chapter –I What is Mediation? History Mediation is not a new concept for Indians and on the contrary, the same is imbibed in our culture from its inception. It has roots in our culture since ancient times of Buddha, Chanakya, Yagnavlkya and  Mahabharat. Duryodhan was adamant and said he would not give an inch from Hastinapur but also demanded Indraprastha, (Today’s NCR) area. Krishna was the first mediator on earth who tried to convince Duryodhan to give up his claim on Indraprastha and keep Hastinapur. But he refused and the consequence was War. In ancient days, any dispute or differences amongst parties were resolved by Mukhiyas, Sarpanch or Panchayats. The same was at the Gram Panchayat Level, whose words and orders were final. People had full respect and faith and had never endeavoured to oppose the same. Indian tradition is marked by joint Hindu Families, where the words sentiments, and, emotions, of all the members of the family are respected and all the disputes and differences of opinion are settled by the Karta of the Family or the eldest person in the Family, so that the family remains united. This was in general the social structure of India and Courts were unknown to our culture. Even today Khap Panchayat makes decisions, and it is final and binding. ( See Sec 3(b) ) By invasion and ruling of Britishers, this system was hampered to some extent and people tended to move to Courts by referring disputes to the Courts for redressal of their disputes in terms of Judgment and Decree, during the British Regime. After partition and enforcement of the Constitution of India, disputes in Courts started piling up and resulted in considerable delays in delivering justice and resolving the dispute. Torts in India even today are not much enforced, however, there are Consumer Forums whose judgment can be executed as a Decree of Civil Court. It is a natural phenomenon that every human being when he is lost in a way goes back to his own origin and again with the same concept, but with improved methods Indian society is now prepared to go back to resolve the dispute by way of mediation in the new name and style of Alternative Dispute Resolution. Unlike Arbitration, mediation is non-judgmental and non-binding. THE PARLIAMENT HAS NOW PASSED THE MEDIATION ACT 2023 Let us see and jump to the current scenario from the days of Mahabharat. APPLICATION: The Act applies to the mediation when it is conducted in India, and — all or both parties habitually reside in case of a company or LL.P or a Firm is incorporated in or has their place of business in India, there is a mediation agreement which provides that any dispute shall be resolved in accordance with the provisions of this Act; or there is an international mediation; or wherein one of the parties to the dispute is the Central Government or a State Government or agencies, public bodies, corporations, and local bodies, including entities controlled or owned by such Government and where the matter pertains to […]

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October 19, 2023

What is Ardh -Narishwar? Is it alike a gay or eunuch? Let us see what is Ardh- Narishwar ‘शंकर: पुरुषा: सर्वे स्त्रिय: सर्वा महेश्वरी।’ (शिवपुराण) अर्थात्–समस्त पुरुष भगवान सदाशिव के अंश और समस्त स्त्रियां भगवती शिवा की अंशभूता हैं, उन्हीं भगवान अर्धनारीश्वर से यह सम्पूर्ण चराचर जगत् व्याप्त है। शक्ति के बिना शिव ‘शव’ हैं शिव और शक्ति एक–दूसरे से उसी प्रकार अभिन्न हैं, जिस प्रकार सूर्य और उसका प्रकाश, अग्नि और उसका ताप तथा दूध और उसकी सफेदी। शिव में ‘इ’कार ही शक्ति है। ‘शिव’ से ‘इ’कार निकल जाने पर ‘शव’ ही रह जाता है। शास्त्रों के अनुसार बिना शक्ति की सहायता के शिव का साक्षात्कार नहीं होता। अत: आदिकाल से ही शिव–शक्ति की संयुक्त उपासना होती रही है। भगवान शिव के अर्धनारीश्वररूप का आध्यात्मिक रहस्य भगवान शिव का अर्धनारीश्वररूप जगत्पिता और जगन्माता के सम्बन्ध को दर्शाता है। सत्–चित् और आनन्द–ईश्वर के तीन रूप हैं। इनमें सत्स्वरूप उनका मातृस्वरूप है, चित्स्वरूप उनका पितृस्वरूप है और उनके आनन्दस्वरूप के दर्शन अर्धनारीश्वररूप में ही होते हैं, जब शिव और शक्ति दोनों मिलकर पूर्णतया एक हो जाते हैं। सृष्टि के समय परम पुरुष अपने ही वामांग से प्रकृति को निकालकर उसमें समस्त सृष्टि की उत्पत्ति करते हैं। शिव गृहस्थों के ईश्वर और विवाहित दम्पत्तियों के उपास्य देव हैं क्योंकि अर्धनारीश्वर शिव स्त्री और पुरुष की पूर्ण एकता की अभिव्यक्ति हैं। संसार की सारी विषमताओं से घिरे रहने पर भी अपने मन को शान्त व स्थिर बनाये रखना ही योग है। भगवान शिव अपने पारिवारिक सम्बन्धों से हमें इसी योग की शिक्षा देते हैं। अपनी धर्मपत्नी के साथ पूर्ण एकात्मकता अनुभव कर, उसकी आत्मा में आत्मा मिलाकर ही मनुष्य आनन्दरूप शिव को प्राप्त कर सकता है। क्यों हुआ अर्धनारीश्वर अवतार? भगवान शिव का अर्धनारीश्वरस्वरूप ब्रह्माजी की कामनाओं को पूर्ण करने वाला है। पुराणों के अनुसार लोकपितामह ब्रह्माजी ने सनक–सनन्दन आदि मानसपुत्रों का इस इच्छा से सृजन किया कि वे सृष्टि को आगे बढ़ायें परन्तु उनकी प्रजा की वृद्धि में कोई रुचि नहीं थी। अत: ब्रह्माजी भगवान सदाशिव और उनकी परमाशक्ति का चिंतन करते हुए तप करने लगे। इस तप से प्रसन्न होकर भगवान सदाशिव अर्धनारीश्वर रूप में ब्रह्माजी के पास आए और प्रसन्न होकर अपने वामभाग से अपनी शक्ति रुद्राणी को प्रकट किया। वे ही भवानी, जगदम्बा व जगज्जननी हैं। ब्रह्माजी ने भगवती रुद्राणी की स्तुति करते हुए कहा– ’हे देवि! आपके पहले नारी कुल का प्रादुर्भाव नहीं हुआ था, इसलिए आप ही सृष्टि की प्रथम नारीरूप, मातृरूप और शक्तिरूप हैं। आप अपने एक अंश से इस चराचर जगत् की वृद्धि हेतु मेरे पुत्र दक्ष की कन्या बन जायें।’ ब्रह्माजी की प्रार्थना पर देवी रुद्राणी ने अपनी भौंहों के मध्य भाग से अपने ही समान एक दिव्य नारी–शक्ति उत्पन्न की, जो भगवान शिव की आज्ञा से दक्ष प्रजापति की पुत्री ‘सती’ के नाम से जानी गयीं। देवी रुद्राणी पुन: महादेवजी के शरीर में प्रविष्ट हो गयीं। अत: भगवान सदाशिव के अर्धनारीश्वररूप की उपासना में ही मनुष्य का कल्याण निहित है। अर्धनारीनटेश्वर स्तोत्र (हिन्दी अनुवाद सहित)!!!!!!!! English Translation: That is, all men are part of Lord Sadashiv and all women are part of Lord Shiva, this entire living world is pervaded by the same Lord Ardhanarishwar. Without Shakti, Shiva is a ‘dead body’ Shiva […]

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October 4, 2023

During the last 40 years in India, politics has been divided into regional and mainstream parties. The mainstream party was the only one dominated by a family. Under its shelter, every state advanced state-level family powerhouse. They are still inter-alia in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Jammu and Kashmir, West Bengal, and Telangana. However, the said respective families would oppose state elections and partner in the central government. This continued for decades. Slowly people realised that there is a change in voting tendency. Well, let’s migrate to the topic under discussion to the current situation as the country will go for Lok Sabha elections in 2024. The small local regional parties referred to in para hereinabove along with the mainstream party formed an alliance.  They named it as INDI Alliance. This INDI Alliance has introduced a new idea to fetch more votes. They have proposed that rights on the national resources will be as per the population of a caste.  A caste having a larger population should get more facilities. During the tenure of UPA erstwhile Prime Minister said that it is in particular Muslims who has first right to the resources of this country. Please see the link https://youtube.com/shorts/UAdiboSk-vk?si=P1bjy7UvohWHj-CE PARTITION India has seen division in 1947. A bloody partition based on religion. Millions. Many shed lives and were martyred and many children lost while crossing the border. Nehru became the first PM of independent Bharat.    INDIA WAS BORN We have a constitution in force. Our constitution gives equal opportunity to all. Let us see what it provides: Article 13. Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights. (1) All laws in force in the territory of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, in so far as they are inconsistent with the provisions of this Part, shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void. (2) The State shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights conferred by this Part and any law made in contravention of this clause shall, to the extent of the contravention, be void Article 14. guarantees Equality before the law. —The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India. Article 15. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth (1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, or any of them. (2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction, or condition with regard to— a) access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment; or (b) the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public. (3) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children. [(4) Nothing in this article or in clause (2) of […]

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August 11, 2023

Judicial activism is most debated among the students of law and laymen. What is judicial activism? Judicial activism is exercising the power of judicial review to set aside government acts by the judiciary. Last decade we saw most of the orders passed to administer various policies of the government by the Supreme Court. From abortion of 24-week fetuses to supply of oxygen and medicine, gay rights, gay marriages, Aadhaar- PAN linking, repeal of Article 370, Ram Temple, Rafael allegation. During the coronavirus pandemic court orders were passed distribution of remdesivir, vaccine, oxygen. In Uttar Pradesh, photos of the burial of bodies at Ganga Ghat were used to create sensation and Hon’ble Court dismissed such frivolous litigation. PITH AND SUBSTANCE Origin: It is a legal doctrine originated in Canada.  The doctrine is primarily used when a law is challenged on the basis that one level of government (be it provincial or federal) has encroached upon the exclusive jurisdiction of another level of government. (as applicable in Canada) The doctrine was first articulated in Cushing v. Dupuy, where the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council held that certain rules of civil court procedure could be prescribed under the federal bankruptcy power. It was subsequently confirmed in Tennant v. The Union Bank of Canada, where rules governing warehouse receipts with respect to bank loans could be prescribed under the federal banking power. *The full test was articulated in General Motors v. City National Leasing by Dickson CJ, where he summarized and outlined the analysis to be used in that regard in future cases: The court must determine whether the impugned provision can be viewed as intruding on provincial powers, and if so to what extent. It must establish whether the act (or a severable part of it) in which the impugned provision is found is valid. In cases under the second branch of s. 91(2) this will normally involve finding the presence of a regulatory scheme and then ascertaining whether the hallmarks articulated by the Court have been met by the scheme. If the scheme is not valid, that is the end of the inquiry. If the regulatory scheme is declared valid, the court must then determine whether the impugned provision is sufficiently integrated with the scheme that it can be upheld by virtue of that relationship. This requires considering the seriousness of the encroachment on provincial powers, in order to decide on the proper standard for such a relationship. If the provision passes this integration test, it is intra- vires Parliament as an exercise of the general trade and commerce power. If the provision is not sufficiently integrated into the scheme of regulation, it cannot be sustained under the second branch of s. 91(2). *(source Wikipedia) INDIA AND THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF THE CONSTITUTION Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala Case, is also known as the Fundamental Rights case. It is one of the most significant decisions in Indian constitutional history, post-independence. It was heard by 13 judges’ bench of the Supreme Court. S.M. Sikri C. J., Hegde J, Mukherjee J, Shehlat J, Grover J, Jaganmohan Reddy J, and Khanna J delivered […]

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August 5, 2023

State Government of Maharashtra received several complaints from the Housing Societies, Housing Federations and individual members regarding the mismanagement of Co-operative Societies which are in the midst of re-development. By and large, the nature of complaints received in the matter of re-development of Co-operative Housing Societies is as follows: – Not taking members in confidence in the Re-development process; Non-transparency in the Tendering Process; Arbitrary appointment of contractors; Conducting business in violation of the Co-operative Law, Rules and Byelaws; Lack of co-ordination in the work to be done by the Architects and project Consultants; Non-Planning of Re-development Project Report; Not adopting a fair procedure for the finalisation of tenders; Non-Parity in the Agreements to be executed with Developers. Considering the gravity of issues government of Maharashtra is supersession of the Government Resolution dt.3rd January, 2009, issued Revised Guidelines for Redevelopment of Co-operative Society Buildings in Maharashtra- G.R. dated 4th July, 2019 and gave following directions under Section 79(a) of the Maharashtra Co-operative Societies Act, 1960. Government Resolution: – If any Competent Authority has declared the building of a co-operative housing society as ruinous or dilapidated or dangerous for inhabitation or as posing danger to the passers-by or any structure or place in the neighbourhood and the society is eligible to redevelop the building under the Development Control Regulations, then such society in its General Meeting can take a decision regarding re-development of the building. These directions shall apply to all kinds of Redevelopment such as Re-development carried out by a developer under an agreement, Self-redevelopment, cluster redevelopment in Federal Societies, re-development by a group of societies etc. All the procedure prescribed for the appointment of a developer shall apply to all the afore stated kinds of re-development, the appointment of a contractor or the development carried out under an agreement. The decision regarding re-development of the buildings of housing societies shall be taken in the Special General Meeting of the society held as per the registered byelaws of such society in accordance with the procedure prescribed by these guidelines. The Authorised Officer/Administrator appointed by the Registrar cannot take the decision regarding re-development of the buildings of co-operative housing societies. Convening Special General Meeting for the Re-development of Society Building: –It will be essential that not less than 1/5th members of the co-operative housing society whose buildings are to be re-developed should submit an application addressed to the Secretary of the Managing Committee of the society duly elected and constituted as per the bye-laws of the society and under the law for convening the Special General Meeting for deciding the policy in the matter of re-development of buildings belonging to the society, together with their schemes and suggestions regarding re-development of such buildings. The Managing Committee shall take note of such application within 8 days of the receipt thereof and the Secretary of the society shall convene a Special General Meeting of all members of the society within 2 months. Agenda of this Meeting should be circulated to each member of the society 14 days in advance and the acknowledgment thereof should be maintained in the record of the society. Before […]

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क्या आप चाहते हैं कि आपकी सोशल मीडिया पोस्ट वायरल हो या काले बादल? कानून क्या कहता है?

August 3, 2023

यूट्यूब, ट्वीटर, इंस्टाग्राम प्रचार पाने के नए मंच हैं और खाताधारक खुद को प्रभावशाली व्यक्ति कहता है। वे भारी शुल्क लेते हैं क्योंकि वे जानते हैं कि पोस्ट को कैसे वायरल किया जाए और अधिक फॉलोअर्स और रीट्वीट कैसे प्राप्त किए जाएं। यूट्यूब, ट्वीटर, इंस्टाग्राम पर बड़ी उपलब्धि हासिल करने की उम्मीद रखने वाले रचनात्मक लोगों के लिए वायरल होना एक सपना है। लेकिन लाइव स्ट्रीमिंग और सार्वजनिक शर्मिंदगी के युग में, यह अब बुरे सपने जैसा है। टिकटॉक ट्रेंड, मज़ाक और यहां तक कि “दयालुता के कृत्यों” के कारण लोगों को उनकी सहमति या यहां तक कि उनकी जानकारी के बिना आकस्मिक रूप से वायरल प्रसिद्धि मिल रही है। इसलिए किसी भी आपराधिक परिणाम के लिए आप जिम्मेदार होंगे। जैसे राज कुंद्रा को पेड व्हाट्सएप पोर्न वीडियो ग्रुप चलाने के आरोप में गिरफ्तार किया गया था। जब आप कोई फोटो या वीडियो पोस्ट करते हैं तो वह आपका प्रकाशन बन जाता है। इसलिए आप ही जिम्मेदार होंगे। साइबर अथॉरिटी बाद में मूल लेखक को पकड़ लेगी। इसलिए सलाह दी जाती है कि अपने किसी भी सोशल मीडिया प्लेटफॉर्म पर पोस्ट करने से पहले उसकी वैधता की जांच कर लें यदि आपका वीडियो बनाया गया है या फोटो खींचा गया है और वायरल हो गया है, तो आप सोच रहे होंगे कि क्या आप कोई कानूनी कार्रवाई कर सकते हैं। कई क्षेत्रों में कानून प्रौद्योगिकी और उसके साथ आने वाले सामाजिक रुझानों को नहीं पकड़ पाया है – लेकिन कुछ परिस्थितियों में यह आपके पक्ष में हो सकता है। गोपनीयता अधिकार यूके मानवाधिकार अधिनियम 1998 द्वारा संरक्षित हैं, जिसका उद्देश्य अन्य लोगों को आपके जीवन में हस्तक्षेप करने से रोकना है। यह निर्धारित करता है कि आपके बारे में व्यक्तिगत जानकारी, जिसमें तस्वीरें और पत्राचार जैसे पत्र और ईमेल शामिल हैं, आपकी अनुमति के बिना सार्वजनिक रूप से साझा नहीं की जानी चाहिए। अन्य व्यक्तिगत जानकारी, जैसे आपका पता और टेलीफोन नंबर, डेटा संरक्षण अधिनियम 2018 के तहत संरक्षित है। Avinash Bajaj vs State ई-बे की सहायक कंपनी Bazee.Com के मामले में को अश्लील साहित्य बेचने के लिए उत्तरदायी ठहराया गया था। भारत में भी ऐसे कानून हैं जो निजता के अधिकार की रक्षा करते हैं। यह आई.पी.सी का बहुत पुराना प्रावधान है और 2000 में एक नया अधिनियम बनाया गया सूचना और प्रौद्योगिकी अधिनियम 2000 भी नागरिक के अधिकार की रक्षा करता है। भारतीय दंड संहिता (आई.पी.सी) की धारा 292 और सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी अधिनियम 2000 (आईटी अधिनियम) की धारा 66-66A- 67; सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी (मध्यवर्ती दिशानिर्देश और डिजिटल मीडिया आचार संहिता) नियम, 2021 मणिपुर वायरल वीडियो के मामले में यह स्पष्ट नहीं है कि इस पहलू पर विचार किया जा रहा है या नहीं। इसलिए किसी भी वीडियो को पोस्ट करने से पहले जो प्रकृति में व्यक्तिगत है या जो घटनाओं से कानून और व्यवस्था की स्थिति पैदा करने वाला है, उसे ट्विटर आदि जैसे सार्वजनिक प्लेटफार्मों पर पोस्ट करने के बजाय उचित प्राधिकारी को अग्रेषित करने की सलाह दी जाती है। विडंबना यह है कि सरकार भी कोई नीतिगत दिशानिर्देश लेकर नहीं आई है। लोग आमतौर पर पुलिस और उसके बाद की जांच से डरते हैं। सरकार द्वारा जारी दिशा-निर्देशों में स्व-विनियमित शिकायत निवारण का प्रावधान है। The link […]

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