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PREVAILING LAW RELATING TO THE TRANSFER AND TRANSMISSION OF SHARES ON THE DEATH OF A MEMBER  SHORTCOMINGS

November 14, 2022

 This  blog comes in wake of a judgment I came across of the Bombay High Court in the matter of  Karan Vishnu Khandelwal Omdham Cooperative Housing Society Ltd. Vs Deputy Registrar -K-West In this matter facts of the case were as under: Mannalal Surajmal Khandelwal (deceased) was owner of a flat no.1 and by virtue thereof, was entitled to share certificate. The deceased during his lifetime registered a nomination in the name of Petitioner- his grandson. The nomination was acknowledged by the managing committee of the society in it’s meeting held on and made an entry in the nomination register. Mr. Mannalal Khandelwal died intestate on 20thJanuary, 2011, leaving behind, Rajendra Mannalal Khandelwal (Son- Respondent No.2); Krishnakumar Mannalal Khandelwal (Son); and Petitioner- son of Vishnu Mannalal Khandelwal (predeceased son of deceased). That upon demise of Mannalal Surajmal Khandelwal, Respondent No.2 – Rajendra M. Khandelwal, made an application to the society, inter alia, seeking transfer of membership and the share certificate in his name. Along with the application, he submitted a No Objection cum Declaration’ and indemnity bond made and executed by Krishnakumar Mannalal Khandelwal. This way, the Respondent No.2 claimed 2/3rdshare and interest in the flat and sought transfer of proportionate interest in flat and claimed membership. The application was rejected by the society on 8thAugust, 2018. Whereafter, the Respondent No.2 preferred an appeal under section 23 (2) of the Maharashtra Societies Act (‘MCS Act’ for short), being Appeal No. 09 of 2019 before the Deputy Registrar. The Petitioner sought intervention in the said appeal. The Intervention was allowed. The Deputy Registrar vide order dated 8thFebruary, 2021 allowed the appeal and held that since the Respondent No.2 has acquired 2/3rdright in flat No.1, to that extent, his interest be noted in the society record. In consequence, the Deputy Registrar acknowledged 2/3rdundivided right of the Respondent No.2 and 1/3rdundivided right of the Petitioner in flat No.1 and directed to make entries in the society records. In revision, the Divisional Joint Registrar upheld the order of the Deputy Registrar and dismissed the revision application of the Petitioner. Feeling aggrieved by that order, the Petitioner has filed this petition. MATTER BEFORE BOMBAY HIGH COURT WHEN ERROR OF LAW OCCURRED The matter when came up before the Bombay High Court, the court observed that Registrar passed the impugned order in haste may be at the behest of respondent No.2. Therefore, the impugned order not only suffers from gross irregularity being passed in breach of principles of natural justice but also against the law, and therefore, deserves to be quashed and set aside. While passing the Judgement Bombay High Court relied upon Indrani Wahi Vs. Registrar of Co-operative Societies (Civil Appeal 4930/2006), held that the cooperative society was bound by nomination made by the deceased and it was bound to transfer the shares to the nominee While passing the Judgment Hon’ble Court it relied upon the provisions of Section 154-B(2) of Maharashtra Cooperative Societies (Amendment) Act, 2019. In any event, by. It reads under:     “154-13. On the death of a Member of a society, the society shall transfer share, right, title and interest in […]

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The chair

MAHARASHTRA CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY ACT LACUNAE ABUSE  OF POWER AN ANALYSIS AND SUGGESTIONS

October 5, 2022

“Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a men’s character, give him power.” Said Abraham Lincoln This aptly applies to the Managing Committee of a society. Once the power comes neighbor becomes your Master. There are many incidents where the committee manipulates bills and contracts, and even in redevelopment cases three honorary office bearers Secretary, Chairman, and Treasurer have weightage in the finalization of the deal. We see litigations and stalling of projects of a housing society. Human tendency is such that they think of self-gain, instead of taking care and executing responsibilities that they have taken with utmost care and truthfulness. Corrupt minds see financial benefits in every deal. They forget that while doing this they prejudice the property and interests of other flat members. Election: 1 With the new election rules, an election is held similarly to the way in which how elections are held in any Assembly and Parliament. Cartel is formed and elections are won. It has killed the neighborhood’s love, respect, and honor. One family and one flat provision are also violated royally. Even if distant relatives or cousins have a cartel. This creates a monopoly in management. Suggestion: Like Multi Co-operative society, provide that same member or any other joint member from one flat cannot contest the consecutive election. The flat owners/member must take a break or drop out from the next election to give an opportunity to other flat owners/members. So, after serving for 5 years the said member/flat owner cannot contest election for immediate subsequent another term. This will reduce the monopoly of a few flat owners and their families, and their friends. For the convenience of the readers and lawmakers reproduced below is the provision of the Multi-State Cooperative Societies Act,2002 below which restricts reelection after two terms. Prohibition to hold the office of chairperson or president or vice chairperson or vice president in certain cases (1) No member of a board shall be eligible to be elected as the chairperson or president or vice-chairperson or vice-president of a multi-state cooperative society if such member is a Minister in the Central Government or a State Government. (2) No member of a board shall be eligible to be elected as the chairperson or president of a multi-state cooperative society, after he has held the office as such during two consecutive terms, whether full or part: Provided that a member who has ceased to hold the office of the chairperson or president continuously for one full term shall again be eligible for election to the office as such. Explanation:- where any member holding the office of the chairperson or president at the commencement of this Act is against elected to that office after such commencement, he shall for the purpose of this section, be deemed to have held office for one term before such election. Proposed Suggestion : A similar principle must be applied to the housing society. A.2 A Managing Committee was disqualified for 5 years, and an administrator was appointed. Managing Committee manages to suppress the facts from members of the society and manages that the […]

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LAW GOVERNING DIVORCE BY MUTUAL CONSENT AND THE CONSTITUTIONAL  PROVISION

September 22, 2022

MARRIAGES ARE DECIDED IN HEAVEN BUT LIVED ON EARTH Introduction: Couples are so eager to get married but are not ready to accept duties and responsibilities. The problem starts from here. Marriage is the foundation of a healthy society. A fractured family gives a fractured and weak society. It gives an insecure future to the nation. Families spend lakhs and crores on the wedding with branded dresses, pre-wedding shoots, food, and ornaments but don’t focus on the spiritual and social aspects of marriage. So once the film of a wedding is over, couples enter the world of reality and find it difficult to manage their relationship with each other and with other family members. From divorce they give an insecure future to their kid if any, and to themselves. Their family members too. As laws in India are such people avoid staying together in fear of criminal prosecution, which is evidently misused in the majority of cases on advice to get divorce and alimony. As per data compiled by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) in the report Crime in India 2020 about 5% of the cases under Section 498A were found to be false. The outcome is couples prefer to leave the country and settle abroad and seniors land in old age homes. These are serious dangers to society. So, should divorce by Mutual Consent be instant? Should six months cooling period be waived? If Yes,  on what terms? If No, then why? The issue involved: A Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court will start hearing on 28th September,  to consider the extent of its powers under Article 142 of the Constitution of India, 1950, to dissolve the marriage. The 5-Judge Bench headed by Justice S.K. Kaul and comprising Justices Sanjiv Khanna, AS Oka, Vikram Nath, and JK Maheshwari was of the opinion that the real issue is the exercise of power under Article 142 when there is an irretrievable breakdown of marriage, but one party is not consenting to divorce. Shilpa Shailesh vs Varun Sreenivasan The Constitution Bench reference originates from a Transfer petition, wherein pursuant to the settlement, the parties had sought appropriate order of the Court to dissolve their marriage, and the same was granted by the Apex Court on the following grounds – there has been an irretrievable breakdown of the marriage between the parties; the parties are consenting to divorce; requiring the parties to go to the jurisdictional family court to invoke the provisions of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 to seek a decree of divorce would be a lengthy process and that, the Family Courts in the country are already burdened with a huge volume of similar litigation. Dictum: Man is a social animal. He cannot live in isolation. To carry forward the human race a sacred institution is created by the name of marriage to have progeny. Who will continue the family tradition, language, dialect, culture, food habits, etcetera. In Hindus, marriage is a sacred institution and not contractual. It carries the sanctity of an institution namely marriage. What is important is to carry forward the family legacy too. Divorce was an […]

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SUCCESSION, TRANSFER, AND TRANSMISSION OF SHARES IN SOCIETY DIED INTESTATE BUT LEFT NOMINATION

September 6, 2022

SUCCESSION, TRANSFER, AND TRANSMISSION OF SHARES IN SOCIETY A peculiar case came up. The deceased a Hindu was a sole member of society. It was his self-acquired property. He dies suddenly without leaving a WILL. But the wife is a nominee. Out of wedlock, they have only one daughter who is major and unmarried. Wife applies for transmission of shares as per nomination. Shares are transferred by the society without any endorsement that it’s transferred in trust as a nominee or get succession certificate. Now this widow, gifts 50% share to her daughter. This happens when parties prepare documents without consulting a lawyer to save money on professional charges. I am saying this because the daughter has by succession 50% right in the property as a member died intestate without leaving a WILL. There was no need of executing the Deed of Gift. The twist is the case comes now, she applies for endorsement and transfer of 50% share ( which is otherwise there under the law) to the society. After several years Society takes opinion and now seeks a Succession Certificate. How far society is justified? We must first refer to bye-laws If there is a single nominee and if he demands payment of the value of Shares and interest of the deceased Member, in the capital/property of the Society, the Society shall acquire the same and pay him the value thereof as provided under the bye-law No.63. If, however, there are more nominees than one and if they demand payment of the value of the shares and interest of the deceased Member in the capital/property of the Society, the Society shall acquire the same and pay them value thereof as provided under the bye-law referred to above in the proportion mentioned in the nomination form. If no proportion is mentioned in the nomination form, the payment shall be in equal proportion. Bye-law 135 (v). The managing committee of the Society shall take necessary precautions to see that no injustice is done to any widow in the cooperative housing Society after the death of a Member before transferring the flat in her name. In such cases, Society shall verify the nomination form duly submitted by the deceased Member or succession certificate /heirship certificate obtained from the Civil Court under the Indian Succession Act 1925 or Will of the deceased Member duly probated by the Civil Court through the executor of the will. After verifying and taking legal guidance Society then only can take appropriate action within the time limit to avoid further legal complications. This procedure can be followed in all cases after the death of a Society Member Section 30 of Maharashtra Cooperative Societies Act, 1960 provides that: Section 30 – Transfer of interest on the death of a member (1) On the death of a member of a society, the society shall transfer the share or interest of the deceased member to a person or persons nominated in accordance with the rules, or, if no person has been so nominated to such person as may appear to the committee to be the heir or legal representative of […]

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GYAN VAPI AND TEMPLES APPLICABILITY OF “PLACES OF WORSHIP LAW- 1991” –DISCUSSION

May 22, 2022

       MEANING OF GYAN VAPI: This was derived from the name of an adjoining waterbody — Gyan Vapi (“Well of Knowledge”) — which was a sacred site in itself and, in all likelihood, predated the Vishweshwar temple.   CAUSE FOR THIS DISCUSSION: CONTEMPORARY CIRCUMSTANCES  In the year 1991 parliament passed a law namely an Act to prohibit conversion of any place of worship and to provide for the maintenance of the religious character of any place of worship as it existed on the 15th day of August 1947 and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. This Act is currently a topic of hot discussion. The incident which brought this law into the public domain is a suit order by Senior Division Civil Court Varanasi in which one Sohanlal Arya has claimed that Gyan Vapi Mosque is the temple. The said temple structure was partially demolished as per orders of the then Mughal ruler Aurangzeb. By an order Civil court carried out the survey in the meantime Muslim community leaders approached the Supreme Court to seek a stay of the proceedings before the Varanasi court. The Supreme Court has granted a stay and is now hearing the matter. The Supreme Court has also by its order transferred the suit to Varanasi Court District Judge. BRUTAL HISTORY OF INVASION, CONVERSION, AND DESTRUCTION OF TEMPLES IN INDIA : Indian history is full of conflict, invasion, and bloodshed. Hindus had to face atrocities at the hands of invaders.  India was invaded by many foreign forces and two large invaders are the Mughals and Britishers. Aurangzeb was a cruel Mughal dynast, and he ordered for demolishing of temples. They converted Hindus to Islam by force. This painful, harsh, brutal, unkind history of this land cannot be erased, forgotten, and denied. Below is a map of the Mughal Empire: Antecedents and history: General Order of the destruction of Temples: 9th April 1669 One of the main objectives of Aurangzeb’s policy was to demolish Hindu temples. When he ordered (13th October 1666) removal of the carved railing, which Prince Dara Shukoh had presented to Keshava Rai temple at Mathura, he had observed ‘In the religion of the Musalmans it is improper even to look at a temple’, and that it was totally unbecoming of a Muslim to act like Dara Shukoh (Exhibit No. 6, Akhbarat, 13th October 1666). This was followed by destruction of the famous Kalka temple in Delhi (Exhibit No. 6, 7, 8, Akhbarat, 3rd and 12th September 1667). In 1669, shortly after the death of Mirza Raja Jai Singh of Amber, a general order was issued (9th April 1669) for the demolition of temples and established schools of the Hindus throughout the empire and banning public worship (Exhibit Nos. 9 & 10). Soon after this the great temple of Keshava Rai was destroyed (Jan.-Feb. 1670) (Exhibit No. 12) and in its place a lofty mosque was erected. The idols, the author of Maasir-i-Alamgiri informs, were carried to Agra and buried under the steps of the mosque built by Begum Sahiba in order to be continually trodden upon, and the name of […]

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TRANSFER AND TRANSMISSION OF SHARES IN A COOPERATIVE HOUSING SOCIETY.

March 30, 2022

Today we are going to discuss unique issues relating to a housing society. Human beings when getting even a little bit of power, behave like King-Queen. This is normal psychology. Taking into consideration this psychology and jurisprudence every law is enacted. Now we shall deal with the questions individually WHAT ARE THE PROVISIONS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TRANSFER/TRANSMISSION OF SHARES UNDER MAHARASHTRA CO-OPERATIVE HOUSING SOCIETY LAWS? ( MAHARASHTRA) Following are the relevant provisions of the Maharashtra Housing Society for transfer and transmission of shares and interest in the society. Open membership.— (1) No society shall, without sufficient cause, refuse admission to membership to any person duly qualified therefore under the provisions of this Act and its bye-laws. (1-A) Where a society refuses to accept the application from an eligible person for admission as a member, or the payment made by him in respect of membership, such person may tender an application in such form as may be prescribed together with payment in respect of membership, if any, to the Registrar, who shall forward the application and the amount, if any so paid, to the society concerned within thirty days from the date of receipt of such application and the amount; and thereupon if the society fails to communicate any decision to the applicant within sixty days from the date of receipt of such application and the amount by the society, the applicant shall be deemed to have become a member of such society. If any question arises whether a person has become a deemed member or otherwise, the same shall be decided by the Registrar after giving a reasonable opportunity of being heard to all the concerned parties. (2) Any person aggrieved by the decision of a society, refusing him admission to its membership, may appeal to the Registrar. Every such appeal, as far as possible, be disposed of by the Registrar within a period of three months from the date of its receipt: Provided that, where such appeal is not so disposed of within the said period of three months, the Registrar shall record the reasons for the delay. (3) The decision of the Registrar in appeal, shall be final and the Registrar shall communicate his  decision to the parties within fifteen days from the date thereof: (4) Without prejudice to the foregoing provisions of this section, in the case of agro-processing societies or any other society for which a definite zone or an area of operation is allotted by the State Government or the Registrar, it shall be obligatory on the part of such society to admit, on an application made to it, every eligible person from that zone or the area of operation, as the case may be, as a member of such society, unless such person is already registered as a member of any other such society, into the same zone or the area of operation. Restrictions on transfer or charge on share or interest.— (1) Subject to the provisions of the last preceding section as to the maximum holding of shares and to any rules made in this behalf, a transfer of, or charge on, […]

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HINDU MARRIAGE WITHOUT PERFORMING KANYADAAN CEREMONY IS VALID OR VOID MARRIAGE?

December 23, 2021

 Nowadays youngsters want to do something new to be some news. Especially Hindus want to break traditions which they are doing since colonial rule. We read in the newspaper a couple got married by taking oath on Constitution and some news girl refused to perform “Kanya Daan” as she wants to remain being Papa ki Pari. Love has no boundaries may it be daughter and father. Till a family has only one daughter things are smooth, but there are twirls and twists if a family also has a son. Then the daughter-in-law is also her Papa ki Pari. Well, let’s now turn to the captioned question. How adventurous, heroic and courageous to break the traditions which are part of our Vedic scriptures. What does the law say? Hindus have two types of schools. Mitakshara and Dayabhaga Dayabhaga is followed in West Bengal and Mitakshara in the rest of India. The difference is about inheritance. Now let us understand provisions of the Hindu Marriage Act,1955 Section 3 deals with definitions. Definitions.—In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,— (a) the expressions “custom” and “usage” signify any rule which, having been continuously and uniformly observed for a long time, has obtained the force of law among Hindus in any local area, tribe, community, group or family: Provided that the rule is certain and not unreasonable or opposed to public policy, and Provided further that in the case of a rule applicable only to a family it has not been discontinued by the family. What are the conditions of marriage under Hindu Law? Conditions for a Hindu marriage.—A marriage may be solemnized between any two Hindus, if the following conditions are fulfilled, namely:— (i) neither party has a spouse living at the time of the marriage; [(ii) at the time of the marriage, neither party— (a) is incapable of giving a valid consent to it in consequence of unsoundness of mind; or (b) though capable of giving valid consent, has been suffering from mental disorder of such a kind or to such an extent as to be unfit for marriage and the procreation of children; or (c) has been subject to recurrent attacks of insanity ***;] (iii) the bridegroom has completed the age of [twenty-one years] and the bride, the age of [eighteen years] at the time of the marriage; (iv) the parties are not within the degrees of prohibited relationship unless the custom or usage governing each of them permits of a marriage between the two; (v) the parties are not sapindas of each other unless the custom or usage governing each of them permits of a marriage between the two; Ceremonies for a Hindu marriage.—(1) A Hindu marriage may be solemnized in accordance with the customary rites and ceremonies of either party thereto. (2) Where such rites and ceremonies include the Saptapadi (that is, the taking of seven steps by the bridegroom and the bride jointly before the sacred fire), the marriage becomes complete and binding when the seventh step is taken. TO EXPOUND AND EXPLAIN THE CEREMONIES UNDER VEDIC SCRIPTURES: There is no standard Hindu marriage ceremony. Regional variation is […]

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ANCIENT INDIA VEDIC USAGE OF  CANNABIS  AND TODAY’S NARCOTIC SUBSTANCE

November 7, 2021

  When I wrote a negative comment about Aryan Khan on Facebook, I was taken a back by a question why Sadhus drug themselves. This was asked none other than a Hindu may be pseudo-secular or the one who made Khans rule over this country though being Khan by a dialogue “ I am Khan and I am not a terrorist”. Our generation is not knowledgeable may be literate.  Literacy means which generates a lot of wealth in terms of money.  I then did research and I recalled having read Sam Ved in Gujarati. Som Ras and Som Paan is an integral part of Aryans. Bhang is offered to Lord Shiv as it heals his pain of consuming poisonous substances during Samudra Manthan. In general, devotees offer even milk to relive his sufferings which Lord Shiv consumed to save the universe. Indian history and Hindu Aryan culture have the tradition to use cannabis, bhang, and other plants as medicine.  The mention is found in Atharva Ved.  There is also mention of Soma Paan by Indra Dev Sukta 56 – 5348.  Consumption of Soma Ras made from herbs on the holy mountain of Himalaya gives the different abilities and sparkling personality.  It was used as medicine for different diseases and during surgery in ancient India.  The mention is in Sushrut Samhita. There is also mention of Madya Paan in Chandipath in Adhyay 3 mantra 34-35 where the supreme powered goddess consumes Madhypan before elimination of devil Mahishasur. Cannabis and its derivatives (marijuana, hashish/charas, and bhang) were legally sold in India until 1985, and their recreational use was commonplace.  Consumption of cannabis was not seen as socially deviant behavior and was viewed as being similar to the consumption of alcohol.  Ganja and Charas were considered by upper-class Indians as the poor man’s intoxicant, although the rich consumed bhang during Holi. The United States began to campaign for a worldwide law against all drugs, following the adoption of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs in 1961.  Article 49 of the Convention required Parties to completely abolish, over a maximum period of 25 years from the coming into force of the Convention, all quasi-medical use of opium, opium smoking, coca leaf chewing, and non-medical cannabis use.  All production and manufacture of these drugs were also to be abolished within the same time periods.  Only Parties for which such uses were “traditional” could take advantage of the delayed implementation; for others, prohibition was immediate.  As the maximum time ended in 1989, these practices are today fully prohibited, and the drugs may be used only for domestically regulated medical and scientific purposes. However, India opposed the move and withstood American pressure to make cannabis illegal for nearly 25 years.  American pressure increased in the 1980s, and in 1985, the Rajiv Gandhi government succumbed and enacted the NDPS Act, banning all narcotic drugs in India. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ANCIENT INDIAN CANNABIS AND TODAY’S NARCOTIC SUBSTANCE? In ancient India, Som Paan was enjoyed by supreme lords and kings as they had to fight devils and evil forces, which we discussed above.  There was no “Drug abuse” […]

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QUESTION AS TO WHETHER CHILDREN FROM A SECOND MARRIAGE OF A HINDU DIED INTESTED WOULD HAVE A SHARE IN THE ANCESTRAL PROPERTY AN ANALYSIS OF JUDGMENT REFERRED TO LARGER BENCH

August 12, 2021

To understand the question, we must know the law. Preliminary: Point to be considered about Second Marriage is a person is in relation without taking divorce and is not a widower, than what is stated herein is applicable. If Second Marriage is legal than children born out of wedlock have equal rights that of first marriage. Hindu Law: This is pertaining to Hindu succession and testator who died without making a WILL. Such succession is governed by Hindu Succession Act,1956. Who is Hindu? According to Hindu Succession Act it applies to : (a) to any person, who is a Hindu by religion in any of its forms or developments including a Virashaiva, a Lingayat or a follower of the Brahmo, Prarthana or Arya Samaj; (b) to any person who is a Buddhist, Jaina or Sikh by religion; and (c) to any other person who is not a Muslim, Christian, Parsi or Jew by religion unless it is proved that any such person would not have been governed by the Hindu law or by any custom or usage as part of that law in respect of any of the matters dealt with herein if this Act had not been passed. The  Explanation says.—The following persons are Hindus, Buddhists, Jainas or Sikhs by religion, as the case may be:— (a) any child, legitimate or illegitimate, both of whose parents are Hindus, Buddhists, Jainas or Sikhs by religion; (b) any child, legitimate or illegitimate one of whose parents is a Hindu, Buddhist, Jaina or Sikh by religion and who is brought up as a member of the tribe, community, group or family to which such parent belongs or belonged; (c) any person who is a convert or re-convert to the Hindu, Buddhist, Jaina or Sikh religion. It also applies to the members of any Scheduled Tribe within the meaning of clause (25) of Article 366 of the Constitution unless the Central Government, by notification in the Official Gazette, otherwise directs and  included a person who, though not a Hindu by religion, is, nevertheless, a person to whom this Act applies by virtue of the provisions contained in this section. Pondicherry: this Act shall apply to the Renouncants of the Union territory of Pondicherry.” [Regulation 7 of 1963, sec. 3 and First Sch. (w.e.f. 1-10-1963).] (a) “agnate”—one person is said to be an “agnate” of another if the two are related by blood or adoption wholly through males; (c) “cognate” — one person is said to be a cognate of another if the two are related by blood or adoption but not wholly through males; (d) the expression “custom” and “usage” signify any rule which having been continuously and uniformly observed for a long time, has obtained the force of law among Hindus in any local area, tribe, community, group or family: Provided that the rule is certain and not unreasonable or opposed to public policy; and Provided further that in the case of a rule applicable only to a family it has not been discontinued by the family; (e) “full blood”, “half blood” and “uterine blood”— (i) two persons are said to be […]

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CAN THERE BE TWO PROBATES /LETTERS OF ADMINISTRATION IN INDIA?

November 18, 2020

An interesting question came up recently, can there be more than one probate ? One for  Specific property and another for rest or general properties? It was a different question, and I was curious to know can this happen? So, started reading provisions and on research I got the answer. No, you will have to read entire blog. It was not easy for me too. So, let’s go… When there is a Will or application of Letters of Administration its governed by Indian Succession Act,1925. Otherwise property is devolved as per personal succession. Let’s see provisions of The Indian Succession Act,1925 Section 232 in The Indian Succession Act, 1925 232. Grant of administration of universal or residuary legatees.—When— (a) the deceased has made a Will, but has not appointed an executor, or (b) the deceased has appointed an executor who is legally incapable or refuses to act, or who has died before the testator or before he has proved the Will, or (c) the executor dies after having proved the will, but before he has administered all the estate of the deceased, a universal or a residuary legatee may be admitted to prove the Will, and letters of administration with the Will annexed may be granted to him of the whole estate, or of so much thereof as may be unadministered. Section 254 in The Indian Succession Act, 1925 254. Appointment, as administrator, of person other than one who, in ordinary circumstances, would be entitled to administration.— (1) When a person has died intestate, or leaving a Will of which there is no executor willing and competent to act or where the executor is, at the time of the death of such person, resident out of the State, and it appears to the Court to be necessary or convenient to appoint some person to administer the estate or any part thereof, other than the person who, in ordinary circumstances, would be entitled to a grant of administration, the Court may, in its discretion, having regard to consanguinity, amount of interest, the safety of the estate and probability that it will be properly administered, appoint such person as it thinks fit to be an administrator. (2) In every such case letters of administration may be limited or not as the Court thinks fit. Section 255 in The Indian Succession Act, 1925 255. Probate or administration, with Will annexed, subject to exception.—Whenever the nature of the case requires that an exception be made probate of a Will, or letters of administration with the Will annexed, shall be granted subject to such exception. Section 257 in The Indian Succession Act, 1925 257. Probate or administration of rest.—Whenever a grant with exception of probate, or of letters of administration with or without the Will annexed, has been made, the person entitled to probate or administration of the remainder of the deceased’s estate may take a grant of probate or letters of administration as the case may be, of the rest of the deceased’s estate. The answer to the question propounded in the order of reference must be found only in chapters 1 and 2 […]

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