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JUDICIAL ACTIVISM AFFECTING ORIGINAL SCOPE OF DUTIES? An analysis based on Article 138 of the Constitution :

May 15, 2021

My Quote: We must consider a person whose money and land is blocked in litigation dies everyday. Article 138. Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court (1) The Supreme Court shall have such further jurisdiction and powers with respect to any of the matters in the Union List as Parliament may by law confer (2) The Supreme Court shall have such further jurisdiction, and powers with respect to any matter as the Government of India and the Government of any State may by special agreement confer, if Parliament by law provides for the exercise of such jurisdiction and powers by the Supreme Court Poetic Justice: English drama critic Thomas Rymer coined the phrase in The Tragedies of the Last Age Consider’d (1678) to describe how a work should inspire proper moral behavior in its audience by illustrating the triumph of good over evil. The demand for poetic justice is consistent in Classical authorities and shows up in Horace, Plutarch, and Quintillian, so Rymer’s phrasing is a reflection of a commonplace. Philip Sidney, in The Defence of Poesy (1595) argued that poetic justice was, in fact, the reason that fiction should be allowed in a civilized nation. But Indian Civilization believes in Karma which was much much prior to theory of poetic justice: And here they say that a person consists of desires, and as is his desire, so is his will; and as is his will, so is his deed; and whatever deed he does, that he will reap. : Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, 7th century BCE Judicial Activism: During #pandemic #Covid19India Judiciary played active role. As such over last 15 years there is more judicial activism. When we change or expand horizon we need more efficiency, professionalism, workforce, intellect, reduction in procedure and process, and also with today’s time we need modern technology. We have in last decade seen Judiciary calling #AirChiefMarshal for questioning on #Rafaeldeal We saw courts ordering change in 1000 years custom and usage in case of #shabarimala At the same time #NJAC was struck down. There is Judicial activism seen by way of PILs and suo motu cognizance. However the fundament duty of Judiciary has seen serious backlog. May it be suit, appeal or execution. We cannot value the total amount stuck in financial  recovery cases,  and land cases pending in various courts across India. Common citizens discuss but do not debate because of scare of law. I am referring these sequences of events because recently Bombay High Court said if people die of lack of oxygen it’s violative of Article 21. What does it provide? Article 21 in The Constitution of India 1949 gives  Protection of life and personal liberty No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law. Backlog of Cases violate of Constitutional Rights? there is report which requires serious considerations even by those who are executing duties under oath. https://prsindia.org/policy/vital-stats/pendency-cases-judiciary which says: In 2016,  compared to 2006, number of cases disposed of increased approximately from 57,000 to 76,000  in Supreme Court;  from 14.4 lakh cases to 16 lakh cases in High Courts and from […]

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International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) Rules,Procedure, and India’s approach

August 1, 2020

First let us see why ICSID was formed and here we will see Practice, Rules and Jurisdiction of ICSID. With growing economy and globalization some forum was felt necessary to resolve dispute between investor and Host State. ICSID  was established under the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (the ICSID Convention), is a multilateral international treaty. The ICSID Convention came into force on October 14, 1966. As of May 2016, 153 contracting member states agreed to enforce and uphold arbitral awards in accordance with the ICSID Convention. The primary purpose of ICSID is to provide facilities and services to support conciliation and arbitration of international investment disputes. The ICSID is part of and funded by the World Bank Group, and its headquarter is in Washington, D.C., in the United States of America. It is an autonomous, multilateral specialized institution to encourage international investment and ease non-commercial risks by a treaty drafted by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development’s( IBRD)  executive directors and signed by member countries. The seat may be moved to another place by decision of the Administrative Council adopted by a majority of two-thirds of its members. The Center has an Administrative Council and a Secretariat and maintains a Panel of Conciliators and a Panel of Arbitrators. Unique Features of ICSID  Arbitration and conciliation under the Convention is  voluntary and require consent of both the investor and State concerned ( Host State)  Once such consent is given, it cannot be withdrawn unilaterally and it becomes a binding undertaking. ICSID is an impartial facility, and it does not decide the cases. The independent arbitrators and conciliators appointed to each case and pass award. Organization Structure The President of the Bank is ex officio Chairman of the Administrative Council (hereinafter called the Chairman) but shall have no right to vote. During his absence or inability to act and during any vacancy in the office of President of the Bank, the person for the time being acting as President shall act as Chairman of the Administrative Council. Jurisdiction: Jurisdiction of the ICSID is in Article 25 The term “jurisdiction of the Centre” is used in the Convention as a convenient expression to shall deemed to mean that, the limits within which the provisions of the Convention will apply. The facilities of the Centre will be available for conciliation and arbitration proceedings when its within jurisdiction of ICSID to its members. The jurisdiction of the ICSID extends to any legal dispute arising directly out of an investment, between a Contracting State / Host Sate and an investor/national of another Contracting State, which the parties to the dispute consent in writing to submit to the ICSID. It may be noted that, consent alone doesn’t bring a dispute within its jurisdiction. The jurisdiction of the Centre is further governed by Article 25(1). Article 25 (1)  provides that the jurisdiction of ICSID applies to legal disputes arising out of investments. So two basic preconditions which will give ICSID Jurisdiction. The expression “legal dispute” has been used to make clear that while conflicts of rights are within […]

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