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Shruti Desai

CAN WE TRANSFER A FLAT IN A HOUSING SOCIETY WITHOUT OBTAINING A PROBATE? IF YES HOW?

April 13, 2024

A person generates wealth for his survival, comfort and luxury. He earns wealth for growth of his family and children. When becomes old same children start talking of inheritance of his wealth while he is living. There are various provisions of law to bequeath property : a. after death of a person, which is WILL or Vasiyat. When you make a WILL your inheritance is governed by Indian Succession Act 1925. This is very common practice and people always make WILL during their lifetime. This WILL or Vasiyat operates or say becomes live after death of make of WILL. This is where entire drawback or lacuna lies. Court even permits registered WILL in a way rewrites last wish of the deceased. Is it correct to do that? Once challenge to the WILL is permitted the Probate application is converted into Suit. Which takes decades to come up for hearing. Resultant the parties to avoid litigation and waste of time settle the claim in most of the matters. The question arises is whether this was the last wish of the deceased? Answer is No. But it happens. b. Next is inheritance governed by personal law. i. For Hindus its Hindu Succession Act 1956. There are two school of thoughts Dayabhaga which is prevalent in West Bengal where son gets inheritance in fathers property only on death of the father. While in rest of India Mitakshara School of Law is followed. In this a child in the womb gets coparcenary rights in the family property. c. Hindu WILL requires to be probated. ii. Islamic Law 1. The Holy Quran 2. The Sunna – that is, the practice of the Prophet 3. The Ijma – that is, the consensus of the learned men of the community on what should be the decision on a particular point 4. The Qiya – that is, an analogical deduction of what is right and just in accordance with the good principles laid down by God. Muslim law recognizes two types of heirs, Sharers and Residuary. Sharers are the ones who are entitled to a certain share in the deceased’s property and Residuary would take up the share in the property that is left over after the sharers have taken their part. A will executed by a Muslim testator is not subject to the compulsory probate requirements under law. This would be a subject matter of Mohammedan personal law (which differs in its application among Shias and Sunnis). However they do file for probate for transfer of plot of land and other properties in Mumbai. d. In case of a Parsi section 213 (2) of the Indian Succession Act 1925 states that in case of a Parsi dying after the commencement of the Act, a probate is necessary if the WILL in question is made or the property bequeathed under the WILL is situated within the “ordinary original civil jurisdiction” of the Bombay high court. e. For WILL made by a Christian probate is not mandatory under Indian Succession Act 1956. COMMENTS: To obtain probate it takes long-time. Now a days 3-4 years even if not contested. So, […]

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SUPREME COURT VERDICT ON ELECTION BOND WILL ONCE AGAIN PROMOTE BLACK MONEY?

March 13, 2024

The Supreme Court on Thursday ( 15 February 2024 ) delivered its highly-anticipated judgment in the electoral bonds case, holding that anonymous electoral bonds are in violation of the right to information under Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution. Accordingly, the scheme has been struck down as unconstitutional. Case details: Association for Democratic Reforms & Anr. v. Union of India & Ors. | Writ Petition (Civil) No. 880 of 2017 Electoral Bond was a mode of funding to the political parties in India. The scheme of Anonymous Electoral Bond was introduced in The Finance Bill, 2017 during the Union Budget 2017-18. It was struck down as unconstitutional by the Supreme Court on 15 February 2024. The election funding system, which was in place for seven years, was stopped with immediate effect by a five-judge bench headed by Chief Justice D. Y. Chandrachud, who directed the State Bank of India to stop issuing these bonds and called the scheme “violative of RTI (Right to Information). To understand why electoral bonds were introduced, we must go back to the era before 2014. There were terrorist attacks in which civilians were killed, Kashmir was ruled by separatists, and stone pelting and attacks on the army were common, there is news that says that RBI’s old printing machines were sold to Pakistan and there was a huge amount of black money and counterfeit notes was widely  in circulation and it was used to destabilize Kashmir and our country. https://www.pgurus.com/de-la-rue-currency-scam-how-pc-and-a-few-officials-compromised-national-security/  There is no rebuttal to this news. The NPA of Banks was about 250 lakh crores. Loans were disbursed on the phone. The entire country was gripped in negativity and there was no hope left. In 2014, the country decided to change the mandate and chose the NDA government. After coming into power, they started working on serious and critical issues. They came into power, with the promise to wipe out black money from the economy.   Consequences of Demonetization: On 8 November 2016, the Government of India announced the demonetization of all ₹500 and ₹1,000 banknotes of the Mahatma Gandhi Series. Prime Minister Narendra Modi claimed that the action would curtail the shadow economy, increase cashless transactions, and reduce the use of illicit and counterfeit cash to fund illegal activity and terrorism. According to a 2018 report from the Reserve Bank of India ₹15.3 lakh crore (15.3 trillion rupees on the short scale) of the ₹15.41 lakh crore in demonetized bank notes, or approximately 99.3%, were deposited in banks, leading analysts to state that the effort had failed to remove black money from the economy. The BSE SENSEX and NIFTY 50 stock indices fell over 6% on the day after the announcement. The move reduced the country’s industrial production and its GDP growth rate. It is estimated that 1.5 million jobs were lost. The move also saw a significant increase in digital and cashless transactions throughout the country. (courtesy Wikipedia). Common citizens cooperated for the better future of this country. Introduction of Electoral Bond Scheme: On 2nd of January 2018 Electoral Bond Scheme was notified. What was the intention,  listen to what then Finance Minister […]

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LEAKING A VIDEO OF AN OFFICER COUNTING BALLOT PAPERS  DURING THE VOTING PROCESS OF CHANDIGARH MUNICIPALITY TO SOCIAL MEDIA IS IN BREACH OF DATA PRIVACY?

February 6, 2024

  Data privacy is a law and it’s in force. It came into force on 11th August 2023. Recently an election process was held for electing a Mayor in Chandigarh Municipality. The issue started with Presiding Officer Anil Mansinh looking at surveillance camera and mainly ruling Aam Adami Party lost Mayoral post. Hence an issue is raised that returning officer defaced the ballot papers. The AAP approached the Supreme Court and upon seeing the video a judgment is drawn that returning officer Anil Mansinh tempered the ballot paper. There are two issues: The video presented in court is available on social media platform and all are interpreting the way they want. This is breach of #dataprivacy. How we will discuss here. Can court become judgmental by declaring returning officer guilty without scrutinizing the records? Is court pre-decisive and judgmental in this case?   DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS: [A] The video presented in court is available on social media platform and all are interpreting the way they want. This is breach of #dataprivacy. While answering point No.i let us go back to recent history of constitution bench judgment in which current CJI was a part of it. Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) & Anr. vs. Union of India & Ors. (2017), also known as the Right to Privacy verdict, is a landmark decision of the Supreme Court of India, held that, the right to privacy is protected as a fundamental right under Articles 14, 19 and 21 of the Constitution of India. A nine-judge bench of J. S. Khehar, J. Chelameswar, S. A. Bobde, R. K. Agrawal, R. F. Nariman, A. M. Sapre, D. Y. Chandrachud, S. K. Kaul, and S. A. Nazeer unanimously held that “the right to privacy is protected as an intrinsic part of the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 and as a part of the freedoms guaranteed by Part III of the Constitution.” It explicitly overruled previous judgements of the Supreme Court in Kharak Singh vs. State of UP and M.P. Sharma vs. Union of India, which held that there is no fundamental right to privacy under the Indian Constitution. This judgment settled this position of law and clarified that the Right to Privacy could be infringed upon only when there was a compelling state interest in doing so. This position was the same as with the other fundamental rights . Supreme Court ruled that Right to Privacy is “intrinsic to life and personal liberty” and is inherently protected under Article 21 and as a part of the freedoms guaranteed by Part III of the Constitution. DATA PROTECTION: Central Government passed an Act to provide for the processing of digital personal data in a manner that recognises both the right of individuals to protect their personal data and the need to process such personal data for lawful purposes and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. The definition of the term data under this Act is as under : (h) “data” means a representation of information, facts, concepts, opinions or instructions in a manner suitable for communication, interpretation or processing by human beings or by […]

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WHEN A CRIMINAL MATTER IS TRANSFERRED TO ANOTHER STATE HIGH COURT THEN WHETHER COURT OF ORIGIN LOSES POWER AND JURISDICTION TO TRY AND ENTERTAIN REMISSION APPLICATION ?

January 9, 2024

BILKIS BANU JUDGEMENT AN ANALYSIS Yesterday two Judges bench passed an order setting aside remission given by the Gujarat High Court on the recommendation of the Gujarat Government under Section 432 (7) (b) of the Code of Civil Procedure 1973 in the matter of Bilkis Banu vs Union of India. But there is different view of 5 Judges Constitution Bench in Murugan Vs Union of India . This law needs more clarification. Brief History : These writ petitions was filed assailing the Orders dated 10.08.2022, granting remission and early release of respondent Nos.3 to 13 in Writ Petition (Crl.) No.491 of 2022 (which petition shall be considered to be the lead petition), who were all convicted, having been found guilty of committing heinous crimes during the large-scale riots in Gujarat on 28.02.2002 and a few days thereafter which occurred in the aftermath of the burning of the train incident in Godhra in the State of Gujarat on 27.02.2002. The crime in question was driven by communal hatred and resulted in twelve convicts, amongst many Writ Petition (Crl.) No.491 of 2022 Etc. others, brutally gang-raping the petitioner in Writ Petition (Crl.) No.491 of 2022, namely, Bilkis Yakub Rasool, who was pregnant at that time. Further, the petitioner’s mother was gang raped and murdered, her cousin who had just delivered a baby was also gang raped and murdered. Eight minors including the petitioner’s cousin’s two-day-old infant were also murdered. The petitioner’s three-year-old daughter was murdered by smashing her head on a rock, her two minor brothers, two minor sisters, her phupha, phupi,mama (uncle, aunt and uncle respectively) and three-cousins were all murdered. Cause of Action Bilkis Yakub Rasool, being an unfortunate victim of the heinous crimes  filed the  writ petition under Article 32 of the Constitution of India, seeking issuance of a writ, order, or direction quashing the Orders dated 10.08.2022 passed by the State of Gujarat by which the convicts in Sessions Case No.634 of 2004, Mumbai (respondent Nos.3 to 13 herein), whose convictions were upheld by a Division Bench of the Bombay High Court and thereafter by Supreme Court. On 28.06.2022, the Department of Home Affairs, Government of Gujarat, addressed a letter to the Secretary, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, seeking sanction from the Government of India on the proposal for the premature release of the prisoners, respondent Nos.3 to 13.  By letter dated 11.07.2022, the Ministry of Home Affairs, The government of India conveyed its approval under Section 435 of the CrPC for the premature release of all 11 convicts, respondent Nos.3 to 13. Pursuant to the concurrence of the Central Government, the State of Gujarat issued the impugned orders dated 10.08.2022. In the above background,  writ petitions were filed, praying, inter-alia, for issuance of a writ, order, or direction, quashing the Orders dated 10.08.2022 LEGAL ISSUE INVOLVED It was asserted inter-alia that though the crime was committed in the State of Gujarat, the investigation and trial were carried out in the State of Maharashtra under the orders of this Court. Hence, given the language of Section 432(7)(b), only the state of Maharashtra would be the appropriate […]

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SAME SEX MARRIAGE AND ARDH NARISHWAR – WHETHER IT IS PARALLEL OR THERE IS RESEMBLANCE?

October 19, 2023

What is Ardh -Narishwar? Is it alike a gay or eunuch? Let us see what is Ardh- Narishwar ‘शंकर: पुरुषा: सर्वे स्त्रिय: सर्वा महेश्वरी।’ (शिवपुराण) अर्थात्–समस्त पुरुष भगवान सदाशिव के अंश और समस्त स्त्रियां भगवती शिवा की अंशभूता हैं, उन्हीं भगवान अर्धनारीश्वर से यह सम्पूर्ण चराचर जगत् व्याप्त है। शक्ति के बिना शिव ‘शव’ हैं शिव और शक्ति एक–दूसरे से उसी प्रकार अभिन्न हैं, जिस प्रकार सूर्य और उसका प्रकाश, अग्नि और उसका ताप तथा दूध और उसकी सफेदी। शिव में ‘इ’कार ही शक्ति है। ‘शिव’ से ‘इ’कार निकल जाने पर ‘शव’ ही रह जाता है। शास्त्रों के अनुसार बिना शक्ति की सहायता के शिव का साक्षात्कार नहीं होता। अत: आदिकाल से ही शिव–शक्ति की संयुक्त उपासना होती रही है। भगवान शिव के अर्धनारीश्वररूप का आध्यात्मिक रहस्य भगवान शिव का अर्धनारीश्वररूप जगत्पिता और जगन्माता के सम्बन्ध को दर्शाता है। सत्–चित् और आनन्द–ईश्वर के तीन रूप हैं। इनमें सत्स्वरूप उनका मातृस्वरूप है, चित्स्वरूप उनका पितृस्वरूप है और उनके आनन्दस्वरूप के दर्शन अर्धनारीश्वररूप में ही होते हैं, जब शिव और शक्ति दोनों मिलकर पूर्णतया एक हो जाते हैं। सृष्टि के समय परम पुरुष अपने ही वामांग से प्रकृति को निकालकर उसमें समस्त सृष्टि की उत्पत्ति करते हैं। शिव गृहस्थों के ईश्वर और विवाहित दम्पत्तियों के उपास्य देव हैं क्योंकि अर्धनारीश्वर शिव स्त्री और पुरुष की पूर्ण एकता की अभिव्यक्ति हैं। संसार की सारी विषमताओं से घिरे रहने पर भी अपने मन को शान्त व स्थिर बनाये रखना ही योग है। भगवान शिव अपने पारिवारिक सम्बन्धों से हमें इसी योग की शिक्षा देते हैं। अपनी धर्मपत्नी के साथ पूर्ण एकात्मकता अनुभव कर, उसकी आत्मा में आत्मा मिलाकर ही मनुष्य आनन्दरूप शिव को प्राप्त कर सकता है। क्यों हुआ अर्धनारीश्वर अवतार? भगवान शिव का अर्धनारीश्वरस्वरूप ब्रह्माजी की कामनाओं को पूर्ण करने वाला है। पुराणों के अनुसार लोकपितामह ब्रह्माजी ने सनक–सनन्दन आदि मानसपुत्रों का इस इच्छा से सृजन किया कि वे सृष्टि को आगे बढ़ायें परन्तु उनकी प्रजा की वृद्धि में कोई रुचि नहीं थी। अत: ब्रह्माजी भगवान सदाशिव और उनकी परमाशक्ति का चिंतन करते हुए तप करने लगे। इस तप से प्रसन्न होकर भगवान सदाशिव अर्धनारीश्वर रूप में ब्रह्माजी के पास आए और प्रसन्न होकर अपने वामभाग से अपनी शक्ति रुद्राणी को प्रकट किया। वे ही भवानी, जगदम्बा व जगज्जननी हैं। ब्रह्माजी ने भगवती रुद्राणी की स्तुति करते हुए कहा– ’हे देवि! आपके पहले नारी कुल का प्रादुर्भाव नहीं हुआ था, इसलिए आप ही सृष्टि की प्रथम नारीरूप, मातृरूप और शक्तिरूप हैं। आप अपने एक अंश से इस चराचर जगत् की वृद्धि हेतु मेरे पुत्र दक्ष की कन्या बन जायें।’ ब्रह्माजी की प्रार्थना पर देवी रुद्राणी ने अपनी भौंहों के मध्य भाग से अपने ही समान एक दिव्य नारी–शक्ति उत्पन्न की, जो भगवान शिव की आज्ञा से दक्ष प्रजापति की पुत्री ‘सती’ के नाम से जानी गयीं। देवी रुद्राणी पुन: महादेवजी के शरीर में प्रविष्ट हो गयीं। अत: भगवान सदाशिव के अर्धनारीश्वररूप की उपासना में ही मनुष्य का कल्याण निहित है। अर्धनारीनटेश्वर स्तोत्र (हिन्दी अनुवाद सहित)!!!!!!!! English Translation: That is, all men are part of Lord Sadashiv and all women are part of Lord Shiva, this entire living world is pervaded by the same Lord Ardhanarishwar. Without Shakti, Shiva is a ‘dead body’ Shiva […]

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RIGHTS OF RESERVATIONS AS PER POPULATION WHETHER CONSTITUTIONAL PROPOSITION?

October 4, 2023

During the last 40 years in India, politics has been divided into regional and mainstream parties. The mainstream party was the only one dominated by a family. Under its shelter, every state advanced state-level family powerhouse. They are still inter-alia in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Jammu and Kashmir, West Bengal, and Telangana. However, the said respective families would oppose state elections and partner in the central government. This continued for decades. Slowly people realised that there is a change in voting tendency. Well, let’s migrate to the topic under discussion to the current situation as the country will go for Lok Sabha elections in 2024. The small local regional parties referred to in para hereinabove along with the mainstream party formed an alliance.  They named it as INDI Alliance. This INDI Alliance has introduced a new idea to fetch more votes. They have proposed that rights on the national resources will be as per the population of a caste.  A caste having a larger population should get more facilities. During the tenure of UPA erstwhile Prime Minister said that it is in particular Muslims who has first right to the resources of this country. Please see the link https://youtube.com/shorts/UAdiboSk-vk?si=P1bjy7UvohWHj-CE PARTITION India has seen division in 1947. A bloody partition based on religion. Millions. Many shed lives and were martyred and many children lost while crossing the border. Nehru became the first PM of independent Bharat.    INDIA WAS BORN We have a constitution in force. Our constitution gives equal opportunity to all. Let us see what it provides: Article 13. Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights. (1) All laws in force in the territory of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, in so far as they are inconsistent with the provisions of this Part, shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void. (2) The State shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights conferred by this Part and any law made in contravention of this clause shall, to the extent of the contravention, be void Article 14. guarantees Equality before the law. —The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India. Article 15. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth (1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, or any of them. (2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction, or condition with regard to— a) access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment; or (b) the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public. (3) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children. [(4) Nothing in this article or in clause (2) of […]

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PITH AND SUBSTANCE-  BASIC STRUCTURE OF CONSTITUTION WHY A DEBATABLE ISSUE ?

August 11, 2023

Judicial activism is most debated among the students of law and laymen. What is judicial activism? Judicial activism is exercising the power of judicial review to set aside government acts by the judiciary. Last decade we saw most of the orders passed to administer various policies of the government by the Supreme Court. From abortion of 24-week fetuses to supply of oxygen and medicine, gay rights, gay marriages, Aadhaar- PAN linking, repeal of Article 370, Ram Temple, Rafael allegation. During the coronavirus pandemic court orders were passed distribution of remdesivir, vaccine, oxygen. In Uttar Pradesh, photos of the burial of bodies at Ganga Ghat were used to create sensation and Hon’ble Court dismissed such frivolous litigation. PITH AND SUBSTANCE Origin: It is a legal doctrine originated in Canada.  The doctrine is primarily used when a law is challenged on the basis that one level of government (be it provincial or federal) has encroached upon the exclusive jurisdiction of another level of government. (as applicable in Canada) The doctrine was first articulated in Cushing v. Dupuy, where the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council held that certain rules of civil court procedure could be prescribed under the federal bankruptcy power. It was subsequently confirmed in Tennant v. The Union Bank of Canada, where rules governing warehouse receipts with respect to bank loans could be prescribed under the federal banking power. *The full test was articulated in General Motors v. City National Leasing by Dickson CJ, where he summarized and outlined the analysis to be used in that regard in future cases: The court must determine whether the impugned provision can be viewed as intruding on provincial powers, and if so to what extent. It must establish whether the act (or a severable part of it) in which the impugned provision is found is valid. In cases under the second branch of s. 91(2) this will normally involve finding the presence of a regulatory scheme and then ascertaining whether the hallmarks articulated by the Court have been met by the scheme. If the scheme is not valid, that is the end of the inquiry. If the regulatory scheme is declared valid, the court must then determine whether the impugned provision is sufficiently integrated with the scheme that it can be upheld by virtue of that relationship. This requires considering the seriousness of the encroachment on provincial powers, in order to decide on the proper standard for such a relationship. If the provision passes this integration test, it is intra- vires Parliament as an exercise of the general trade and commerce power. If the provision is not sufficiently integrated into the scheme of regulation, it cannot be sustained under the second branch of s. 91(2). *(source Wikipedia) INDIA AND THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF THE CONSTITUTION Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala Case, is also known as the Fundamental Rights case. It is one of the most significant decisions in Indian constitutional history, post-independence. It was heard by 13 judges’ bench of the Supreme Court. S.M. Sikri C. J., Hegde J, Mukherjee J, Shehlat J, Grover J, Jaganmohan Reddy J, and Khanna J delivered […]

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क्या आप चाहते हैं कि आपकी सोशल मीडिया पोस्ट वायरल हो या काले बादल? कानून क्या कहता है?

August 3, 2023

यूट्यूब, ट्वीटर, इंस्टाग्राम प्रचार पाने के नए मंच हैं और खाताधारक खुद को प्रभावशाली व्यक्ति कहता है। वे भारी शुल्क लेते हैं क्योंकि वे जानते हैं कि पोस्ट को कैसे वायरल किया जाए और अधिक फॉलोअर्स और रीट्वीट कैसे प्राप्त किए जाएं। यूट्यूब, ट्वीटर, इंस्टाग्राम पर बड़ी उपलब्धि हासिल करने की उम्मीद रखने वाले रचनात्मक लोगों के लिए वायरल होना एक सपना है। लेकिन लाइव स्ट्रीमिंग और सार्वजनिक शर्मिंदगी के युग में, यह अब बुरे सपने जैसा है। टिकटॉक ट्रेंड, मज़ाक और यहां तक कि “दयालुता के कृत्यों” के कारण लोगों को उनकी सहमति या यहां तक कि उनकी जानकारी के बिना आकस्मिक रूप से वायरल प्रसिद्धि मिल रही है। इसलिए किसी भी आपराधिक परिणाम के लिए आप जिम्मेदार होंगे। जैसे राज कुंद्रा को पेड व्हाट्सएप पोर्न वीडियो ग्रुप चलाने के आरोप में गिरफ्तार किया गया था। जब आप कोई फोटो या वीडियो पोस्ट करते हैं तो वह आपका प्रकाशन बन जाता है। इसलिए आप ही जिम्मेदार होंगे। साइबर अथॉरिटी बाद में मूल लेखक को पकड़ लेगी। इसलिए सलाह दी जाती है कि अपने किसी भी सोशल मीडिया प्लेटफॉर्म पर पोस्ट करने से पहले उसकी वैधता की जांच कर लें यदि आपका वीडियो बनाया गया है या फोटो खींचा गया है और वायरल हो गया है, तो आप सोच रहे होंगे कि क्या आप कोई कानूनी कार्रवाई कर सकते हैं। कई क्षेत्रों में कानून प्रौद्योगिकी और उसके साथ आने वाले सामाजिक रुझानों को नहीं पकड़ पाया है – लेकिन कुछ परिस्थितियों में यह आपके पक्ष में हो सकता है। गोपनीयता अधिकार यूके मानवाधिकार अधिनियम 1998 द्वारा संरक्षित हैं, जिसका उद्देश्य अन्य लोगों को आपके जीवन में हस्तक्षेप करने से रोकना है। यह निर्धारित करता है कि आपके बारे में व्यक्तिगत जानकारी, जिसमें तस्वीरें और पत्राचार जैसे पत्र और ईमेल शामिल हैं, आपकी अनुमति के बिना सार्वजनिक रूप से साझा नहीं की जानी चाहिए। अन्य व्यक्तिगत जानकारी, जैसे आपका पता और टेलीफोन नंबर, डेटा संरक्षण अधिनियम 2018 के तहत संरक्षित है। Avinash Bajaj vs State ई-बे की सहायक कंपनी Bazee.Com के मामले में को अश्लील साहित्य बेचने के लिए उत्तरदायी ठहराया गया था। भारत में भी ऐसे कानून हैं जो निजता के अधिकार की रक्षा करते हैं। यह आई.पी.सी का बहुत पुराना प्रावधान है और 2000 में एक नया अधिनियम बनाया गया सूचना और प्रौद्योगिकी अधिनियम 2000 भी नागरिक के अधिकार की रक्षा करता है। भारतीय दंड संहिता (आई.पी.सी) की धारा 292 और सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी अधिनियम 2000 (आईटी अधिनियम) की धारा 66-66A- 67; सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी (मध्यवर्ती दिशानिर्देश और डिजिटल मीडिया आचार संहिता) नियम, 2021 मणिपुर वायरल वीडियो के मामले में यह स्पष्ट नहीं है कि इस पहलू पर विचार किया जा रहा है या नहीं। इसलिए किसी भी वीडियो को पोस्ट करने से पहले जो प्रकृति में व्यक्तिगत है या जो घटनाओं से कानून और व्यवस्था की स्थिति पैदा करने वाला है, उसे ट्विटर आदि जैसे सार्वजनिक प्लेटफार्मों पर पोस्ट करने के बजाय उचित प्राधिकारी को अग्रेषित करने की सलाह दी जाती है। विडंबना यह है कि सरकार भी कोई नीतिगत दिशानिर्देश लेकर नहीं आई है। लोग आमतौर पर पुलिस और उसके बाद की जांच से डरते हैं। सरकार द्वारा जारी दिशा-निर्देशों में स्व-विनियमित शिकायत निवारण का प्रावधान है। The link […]

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IS DELHI A UNION TERRITORY? CAN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT REMOVE SPECIAL STATUS OF DELHI ? IF YES, WHAT ARE THE PROVISIONS?

May 22, 2023

As of date, there is a lot of friction going on between the Delhi Government and the Central Government regarding the administration of the state, it’s time for us to know whether Delhi is a full-fledged state or a Union Territory. So let us first read the Constitution provisions. Do you know Delhi is a Union Territory? Yes, under the Indian Constitution Delhi is a Union Territory. Delhi was given a special status in 1991 by the 69th Amendment to the Constitution. Union Territory of Delhi was given a new name and shall be called the National Capital Territory and the administrator thereof appointed under Article 239 shall be designated as the Lieutenant Governor. This was confirmed by 5 judges’ bench of the Supreme Court in the matter of   New Delhi Municipal Corporation vs State of Punjab We have already dealt with the special features of Article 239-AA and need not repeat it. Indeed, a reference to Article 239-B read with clause (8) of Article 239-AA shows how the Union Territory of Delhi is in a class by itself but is certainly not a State within the meaning of Article 246 or Part-VI of the Constitution. In us, it is also a territory governed by clause (4) of Article 246. As pointed out by the learned Attorney General, various Union territories are in different stages of evolution. Some have already acquired Statehood and some may be on the way to it. The fact, however, remains that those surviving as Union territories are governed by Article 246(4) notwithstanding the differences in their respective set-ups – and Delhi, now called the “National Capital Territory of Delhi”, is yet a Union territory. The following are the provisions: The following Article was inserted by way of the 69th Amendment in 1991 and was effective from 1st February 1992. 239AA. Special provisions with respect to Delhi —(1) As from the date of commencement of the Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991, the Union territory of Delhi shall be called the National Capital Territory of Delhi (hereafter in this Part referred to as the National Capital Territory) and the administrator thereof appointed under article 239 shall be designated as the Lieutenant Governor. (2)(a) There shall be a Legislative Assembly for the National Capital Territory and the seats in such Assembly shall be filled by members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the National Capital Territory. (b) The total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly, the number of seats reserved for Scheduled Castes, the division of the National Capital Territory into territorial constituencies (including the basis for such division) and all other matters relating to the functioning of the Legislative Assembly shall be regulated by law made by Parliament. (c) The provisions of articles 324 to 327 and 329 shall apply in relation to the National Capital Territory, the Legislative Assembly of the National Capital Territory, and the members thereof as they apply, in relation to a State, the Legislative Assembly of a State and the members thereof respectively; and any reference in articles 326 and 329 to “appropriate Legislature” shall be deemed to be a reference to Parliament. (3) (a) Subject to the provisions of this […]

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AMENDING THE CONSTITUTION  BY A JUDGEMENT AND ENCROACHING UPON THE POWER OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL HEAD A JUDICIAL OVERREACH?

March 3, 2023

 Why are we discussing this issue? Anoop Baranwal v. Union of India A Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court has ordered that Election Commissioners will be appointed by the President of India on the advice of a Committee consisting of the President, Prime Minister, Leader of Opposition, and Chief Justice of India. However, in this case, the Office of the President was not a Party. Directions were sought against the Election commission. Hence prima facie the Judgment is not binding upon her. POWER TO AMEND The power to amend the constitution is with Parliament. It is an unfettered power under Article 368 of the Constitution. However, a series of Judgements and stare decisis has put a limitation on the exercise of this power. It was felt by the Court that elected representatives may have their own agendas. The landmark judgments say that as far as fundamental rights are concerned amendment should not touch the basic structure of the constitution. ROLE OF JUDICIARY UNDER THE CONSTITUTION: The Supreme Court has the power to declare any law that it finds unconstitutional void. CAN SUPREME COURT AMEND THE CONSTITUTION BY ORDER AND JUDGMENT? On two occasions this question has arisen: The power of the President to appoint higher court Judges under Articles 124 and 217 is shielded by a Judgement and a system of collegium is formed; Amending Article 324 whereby the power of the President is veiled by a recent judgment of the Supreme Court in the matter of Anup Baranwal ( Supra); POWER OF THE PRESIDENT UNDER THE CONSTITUTION: Under Article 52 President is bestowed upon executive powers. Every power is executed in the name of the President under Article 77. WHAT ARE THE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS: What is Election Commission? Under the provisions of the Election Commission (Conditions of Service of Election Commissioners and Transaction of Business)] Act, 1991 “Chief Election Commissioner” means the Chief Election Commissioner appointed under Article 324 of the Constitution. PART XV Provides for the appointment of the Election Commission and procedure. Under Article 324 entire superintendence, direction, and control of the preparation of the electoral rolls for, and the conduct of, all elections to Parliament and to the Legislature of every State and of elections to the offices of President and Vice-President held under this Constitution vests in a Commission (referred to in this Constitution as the Election Commission). APPOINTMENT The Election Commission under Article 324 consists of the Chief Election Commissioner and such number of other Election Commissioners if any, is appointed by the President from time to time and the appointment of the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners shall, subject to the provisions of any law made in that behalf by Parliament, be made by the President. When any other Election Commissioner is so appointed by the President the Chief Election Commissioner shall act as the Chairman of the Election Commission. Before each general election to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assembly of each State, and before the first general election and thereafter before each biennial election to the Legislative Council of each State having such Council, the […]

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