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Shruti Desai

CAN WE TRANSFER A FLAT IN A HOUSING SOCIETY WITHOUT OBTAINING A PROBATE? IF YES HOW?

April 13, 2024

A person generates wealth for his survival, comfort and luxury. He earns wealth for growth of his family and children. When becomes old same children start talking of inheritance of his wealth while he is living. There are various provisions of law to bequeath property : a. after death of a person, which is WILL or Vasiyat. When you make a WILL your inheritance is governed by Indian Succession Act 1925. This is very common practice and people always make WILL during their lifetime. This WILL or Vasiyat operates or say becomes live after death of make of WILL. This is where entire drawback or lacuna lies. Court even permits registered WILL in a way rewrites last wish of the deceased. Is it correct to do that? Once challenge to the WILL is permitted the Probate application is converted into Suit. Which takes decades to come up for hearing. Resultant the parties to avoid litigation and waste of time settle the claim in most of the matters. The question arises is whether this was the last wish of the deceased? Answer is No. But it happens. b. Next is inheritance governed by personal law. i. For Hindus its Hindu Succession Act 1956. There are two school of thoughts Dayabhaga which is prevalent in West Bengal where son gets inheritance in fathers property only on death of the father. While in rest of India Mitakshara School of Law is followed. In this a child in the womb gets coparcenary rights in the family property. c. Hindu WILL requires to be probated. ii. Islamic Law 1. The Holy Quran 2. The Sunna – that is, the practice of the Prophet 3. The Ijma – that is, the consensus of the learned men of the community on what should be the decision on a particular point 4. The Qiya – that is, an analogical deduction of what is right and just in accordance with the good principles laid down by God. Muslim law recognizes two types of heirs, Sharers and Residuary. Sharers are the ones who are entitled to a certain share in the deceased’s property and Residuary would take up the share in the property that is left over after the sharers have taken their part. A will executed by a Muslim testator is not subject to the compulsory probate requirements under law. This would be a subject matter of Mohammedan personal law (which differs in its application among Shias and Sunnis). However they do file for probate for transfer of plot of land and other properties in Mumbai. d. In case of a Parsi section 213 (2) of the Indian Succession Act 1925 states that in case of a Parsi dying after the commencement of the Act, a probate is necessary if the WILL in question is made or the property bequeathed under the WILL is situated within the “ordinary original civil jurisdiction” of the Bombay high court. e. For WILL made by a Christian probate is not mandatory under Indian Succession Act 1956. COMMENTS: To obtain probate it takes long-time. Now a days 3-4 years even if not contested. So, […]

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LEAKING A VIDEO OF AN OFFICER COUNTING BALLOT PAPERS  DURING THE VOTING PROCESS OF CHANDIGARH MUNICIPALITY TO SOCIAL MEDIA IS IN BREACH OF DATA PRIVACY?

February 6, 2024

  Data privacy is a law and it’s in force. It came into force on 11th August 2023. Recently an election process was held for electing a Mayor in Chandigarh Municipality. The issue started with Presiding Officer Anil Mansinh looking at surveillance camera and mainly ruling Aam Adami Party lost Mayoral post. Hence an issue is raised that returning officer defaced the ballot papers. The AAP approached the Supreme Court and upon seeing the video a judgment is drawn that returning officer Anil Mansinh tempered the ballot paper. There are two issues: The video presented in court is available on social media platform and all are interpreting the way they want. This is breach of #dataprivacy. How we will discuss here. Can court become judgmental by declaring returning officer guilty without scrutinizing the records? Is court pre-decisive and judgmental in this case?   DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS: [A] The video presented in court is available on social media platform and all are interpreting the way they want. This is breach of #dataprivacy. While answering point No.i let us go back to recent history of constitution bench judgment in which current CJI was a part of it. Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) & Anr. vs. Union of India & Ors. (2017), also known as the Right to Privacy verdict, is a landmark decision of the Supreme Court of India, held that, the right to privacy is protected as a fundamental right under Articles 14, 19 and 21 of the Constitution of India. A nine-judge bench of J. S. Khehar, J. Chelameswar, S. A. Bobde, R. K. Agrawal, R. F. Nariman, A. M. Sapre, D. Y. Chandrachud, S. K. Kaul, and S. A. Nazeer unanimously held that “the right to privacy is protected as an intrinsic part of the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 and as a part of the freedoms guaranteed by Part III of the Constitution.” It explicitly overruled previous judgements of the Supreme Court in Kharak Singh vs. State of UP and M.P. Sharma vs. Union of India, which held that there is no fundamental right to privacy under the Indian Constitution. This judgment settled this position of law and clarified that the Right to Privacy could be infringed upon only when there was a compelling state interest in doing so. This position was the same as with the other fundamental rights . Supreme Court ruled that Right to Privacy is “intrinsic to life and personal liberty” and is inherently protected under Article 21 and as a part of the freedoms guaranteed by Part III of the Constitution. DATA PROTECTION: Central Government passed an Act to provide for the processing of digital personal data in a manner that recognises both the right of individuals to protect their personal data and the need to process such personal data for lawful purposes and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. The definition of the term data under this Act is as under : (h) “data” means a representation of information, facts, concepts, opinions or instructions in a manner suitable for communication, interpretation or processing by human beings or by […]

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TOWERS, TRANSFERABLE DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS AND UNCERTAINTY

January 3, 2024

TOWER BUILDINGS IN MUMBAI BLISS OR BANE Mumbai was a peaceful place, with sophisticated and cool roads. Tall towers are now new skylines in Mumbai. Jam-packed traffic, roads on ventilators, metro, and coastal roads adorn the site of Mumbai city. Redevelopment of the old building is a booming business now. They are given TDR and additional FSI. But what if this tower falls or collapses? What if the SRA building collapsed and became unsafe? Is there any provision? How such towers will be constructed? What are the rights of flatholders and member’s? Will Insurance save the flat holders’ future? Before answering so many questions let us see the inter-alia relevant provisions of newly framed Development Control Rules for Greater Mumbai. Provisions relating to underdevelopment Control and Promotion Regulation 2034 [ DCPR 2034]. 33(6) Reconstruction of buildings destroyed by fire, or which have collapsed, or which have been demolished under lawful order Reconstruction of buildings that existed on or after 10th June 1977 and have ceased to exist for reasons cited above, shall be allowed to be reconstructed with FSI as per the Regulation No 30(C). Provided that if the area covered under a staircase/lift has not been claimed free of FSI as per the then prevailing Regulation as per the occupation plan, the area covered under staircases/lifts shall be considered while arriving at protected BUA in such cases the premium for entire staircase lift area in the proposed building as per these Regulations shall be recovered. This FSI will be subject to the following conditions: Reconstruction of the new building on the plot should conform to provisions of DP and these Regulations. Reconstruction will be subject to an agreement executed by at least 70 percent of the landlords and occupants each in the original building, within the meaning of the Mumbai Rents, Hotel and Lodging House Rates Control Act, 1947, and such the agreement shall make a provision for accommodation and re-accommodate the said landlord/all occupants in the new building on agreed terms and a certificate from a practicing advocate having a minimum of 10 years’ experience, is submitted confirming that on the date of application, reconstruction, agreements are executed by at least 70% of the landlords and occupants each in the original building with the developer/owner. The Advocate shall also certify that the agreements with occupants are valid and subsisting on the date of application. The Carpet area of residential/non-residential premises may be altered with the consent of occupants. Reconstruction shall be disallowed on set-back areas or areas required for road-widening and such areas shall be handed over to the Corporation. These provisions shall not apply to buildings wholly occupied by warehouses and godowns. If the building is reconstructed with existing FSI/BUA prior to its collapse/demolition, then the requirements of front & marginal open spaces shall be as per the Regulation No.41(5) of these Regulations. Provisions of R.No.41(5) is as under: Provisions in open spaces for plots in Reconstruction/Redevelopment Schemes under the Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority Act, 1976, Slum Rehabilitation Authority and Redevelopment Scheme of municipal tenanted properties; in case of DCR 3(5),33(6),33(7),33(7)(A),33(7)(B),33(9),33(9)(A),33(9)(B),33(10), 33(10)(A),33(11),33(15)and 33(20)(A): The following […]

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SAME SEX MARRIAGE AND ARDH NARISHWAR – WHETHER IT IS PARALLEL OR THERE IS RESEMBLANCE?

October 19, 2023

What is Ardh -Narishwar? Is it alike a gay or eunuch? Let us see what is Ardh- Narishwar ‘शंकर: पुरुषा: सर्वे स्त्रिय: सर्वा महेश्वरी।’ (शिवपुराण) अर्थात्–समस्त पुरुष भगवान सदाशिव के अंश और समस्त स्त्रियां भगवती शिवा की अंशभूता हैं, उन्हीं भगवान अर्धनारीश्वर से यह सम्पूर्ण चराचर जगत् व्याप्त है। शक्ति के बिना शिव ‘शव’ हैं शिव और शक्ति एक–दूसरे से उसी प्रकार अभिन्न हैं, जिस प्रकार सूर्य और उसका प्रकाश, अग्नि और उसका ताप तथा दूध और उसकी सफेदी। शिव में ‘इ’कार ही शक्ति है। ‘शिव’ से ‘इ’कार निकल जाने पर ‘शव’ ही रह जाता है। शास्त्रों के अनुसार बिना शक्ति की सहायता के शिव का साक्षात्कार नहीं होता। अत: आदिकाल से ही शिव–शक्ति की संयुक्त उपासना होती रही है। भगवान शिव के अर्धनारीश्वररूप का आध्यात्मिक रहस्य भगवान शिव का अर्धनारीश्वररूप जगत्पिता और जगन्माता के सम्बन्ध को दर्शाता है। सत्–चित् और आनन्द–ईश्वर के तीन रूप हैं। इनमें सत्स्वरूप उनका मातृस्वरूप है, चित्स्वरूप उनका पितृस्वरूप है और उनके आनन्दस्वरूप के दर्शन अर्धनारीश्वररूप में ही होते हैं, जब शिव और शक्ति दोनों मिलकर पूर्णतया एक हो जाते हैं। सृष्टि के समय परम पुरुष अपने ही वामांग से प्रकृति को निकालकर उसमें समस्त सृष्टि की उत्पत्ति करते हैं। शिव गृहस्थों के ईश्वर और विवाहित दम्पत्तियों के उपास्य देव हैं क्योंकि अर्धनारीश्वर शिव स्त्री और पुरुष की पूर्ण एकता की अभिव्यक्ति हैं। संसार की सारी विषमताओं से घिरे रहने पर भी अपने मन को शान्त व स्थिर बनाये रखना ही योग है। भगवान शिव अपने पारिवारिक सम्बन्धों से हमें इसी योग की शिक्षा देते हैं। अपनी धर्मपत्नी के साथ पूर्ण एकात्मकता अनुभव कर, उसकी आत्मा में आत्मा मिलाकर ही मनुष्य आनन्दरूप शिव को प्राप्त कर सकता है। क्यों हुआ अर्धनारीश्वर अवतार? भगवान शिव का अर्धनारीश्वरस्वरूप ब्रह्माजी की कामनाओं को पूर्ण करने वाला है। पुराणों के अनुसार लोकपितामह ब्रह्माजी ने सनक–सनन्दन आदि मानसपुत्रों का इस इच्छा से सृजन किया कि वे सृष्टि को आगे बढ़ायें परन्तु उनकी प्रजा की वृद्धि में कोई रुचि नहीं थी। अत: ब्रह्माजी भगवान सदाशिव और उनकी परमाशक्ति का चिंतन करते हुए तप करने लगे। इस तप से प्रसन्न होकर भगवान सदाशिव अर्धनारीश्वर रूप में ब्रह्माजी के पास आए और प्रसन्न होकर अपने वामभाग से अपनी शक्ति रुद्राणी को प्रकट किया। वे ही भवानी, जगदम्बा व जगज्जननी हैं। ब्रह्माजी ने भगवती रुद्राणी की स्तुति करते हुए कहा– ’हे देवि! आपके पहले नारी कुल का प्रादुर्भाव नहीं हुआ था, इसलिए आप ही सृष्टि की प्रथम नारीरूप, मातृरूप और शक्तिरूप हैं। आप अपने एक अंश से इस चराचर जगत् की वृद्धि हेतु मेरे पुत्र दक्ष की कन्या बन जायें।’ ब्रह्माजी की प्रार्थना पर देवी रुद्राणी ने अपनी भौंहों के मध्य भाग से अपने ही समान एक दिव्य नारी–शक्ति उत्पन्न की, जो भगवान शिव की आज्ञा से दक्ष प्रजापति की पुत्री ‘सती’ के नाम से जानी गयीं। देवी रुद्राणी पुन: महादेवजी के शरीर में प्रविष्ट हो गयीं। अत: भगवान सदाशिव के अर्धनारीश्वररूप की उपासना में ही मनुष्य का कल्याण निहित है। अर्धनारीनटेश्वर स्तोत्र (हिन्दी अनुवाद सहित)!!!!!!!! English Translation: That is, all men are part of Lord Sadashiv and all women are part of Lord Shiva, this entire living world is pervaded by the same Lord Ardhanarishwar. Without Shakti, Shiva is a ‘dead body’ Shiva […]

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RIGHTS OF RESERVATIONS AS PER POPULATION WHETHER CONSTITUTIONAL PROPOSITION?

October 4, 2023

During the last 40 years in India, politics has been divided into regional and mainstream parties. The mainstream party was the only one dominated by a family. Under its shelter, every state advanced state-level family powerhouse. They are still inter-alia in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Jammu and Kashmir, West Bengal, and Telangana. However, the said respective families would oppose state elections and partner in the central government. This continued for decades. Slowly people realised that there is a change in voting tendency. Well, let’s migrate to the topic under discussion to the current situation as the country will go for Lok Sabha elections in 2024. The small local regional parties referred to in para hereinabove along with the mainstream party formed an alliance.  They named it as INDI Alliance. This INDI Alliance has introduced a new idea to fetch more votes. They have proposed that rights on the national resources will be as per the population of a caste.  A caste having a larger population should get more facilities. During the tenure of UPA erstwhile Prime Minister said that it is in particular Muslims who has first right to the resources of this country. Please see the link https://youtube.com/shorts/UAdiboSk-vk?si=P1bjy7UvohWHj-CE PARTITION India has seen division in 1947. A bloody partition based on religion. Millions. Many shed lives and were martyred and many children lost while crossing the border. Nehru became the first PM of independent Bharat.    INDIA WAS BORN We have a constitution in force. Our constitution gives equal opportunity to all. Let us see what it provides: Article 13. Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights. (1) All laws in force in the territory of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, in so far as they are inconsistent with the provisions of this Part, shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void. (2) The State shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights conferred by this Part and any law made in contravention of this clause shall, to the extent of the contravention, be void Article 14. guarantees Equality before the law. —The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India. Article 15. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth (1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, or any of them. (2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction, or condition with regard to— a) access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment; or (b) the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public. (3) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children. [(4) Nothing in this article or in clause (2) of […]

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क्या आप चाहते हैं कि आपकी सोशल मीडिया पोस्ट वायरल हो या काले बादल? कानून क्या कहता है?

August 3, 2023

यूट्यूब, ट्वीटर, इंस्टाग्राम प्रचार पाने के नए मंच हैं और खाताधारक खुद को प्रभावशाली व्यक्ति कहता है। वे भारी शुल्क लेते हैं क्योंकि वे जानते हैं कि पोस्ट को कैसे वायरल किया जाए और अधिक फॉलोअर्स और रीट्वीट कैसे प्राप्त किए जाएं। यूट्यूब, ट्वीटर, इंस्टाग्राम पर बड़ी उपलब्धि हासिल करने की उम्मीद रखने वाले रचनात्मक लोगों के लिए वायरल होना एक सपना है। लेकिन लाइव स्ट्रीमिंग और सार्वजनिक शर्मिंदगी के युग में, यह अब बुरे सपने जैसा है। टिकटॉक ट्रेंड, मज़ाक और यहां तक कि “दयालुता के कृत्यों” के कारण लोगों को उनकी सहमति या यहां तक कि उनकी जानकारी के बिना आकस्मिक रूप से वायरल प्रसिद्धि मिल रही है। इसलिए किसी भी आपराधिक परिणाम के लिए आप जिम्मेदार होंगे। जैसे राज कुंद्रा को पेड व्हाट्सएप पोर्न वीडियो ग्रुप चलाने के आरोप में गिरफ्तार किया गया था। जब आप कोई फोटो या वीडियो पोस्ट करते हैं तो वह आपका प्रकाशन बन जाता है। इसलिए आप ही जिम्मेदार होंगे। साइबर अथॉरिटी बाद में मूल लेखक को पकड़ लेगी। इसलिए सलाह दी जाती है कि अपने किसी भी सोशल मीडिया प्लेटफॉर्म पर पोस्ट करने से पहले उसकी वैधता की जांच कर लें यदि आपका वीडियो बनाया गया है या फोटो खींचा गया है और वायरल हो गया है, तो आप सोच रहे होंगे कि क्या आप कोई कानूनी कार्रवाई कर सकते हैं। कई क्षेत्रों में कानून प्रौद्योगिकी और उसके साथ आने वाले सामाजिक रुझानों को नहीं पकड़ पाया है – लेकिन कुछ परिस्थितियों में यह आपके पक्ष में हो सकता है। गोपनीयता अधिकार यूके मानवाधिकार अधिनियम 1998 द्वारा संरक्षित हैं, जिसका उद्देश्य अन्य लोगों को आपके जीवन में हस्तक्षेप करने से रोकना है। यह निर्धारित करता है कि आपके बारे में व्यक्तिगत जानकारी, जिसमें तस्वीरें और पत्राचार जैसे पत्र और ईमेल शामिल हैं, आपकी अनुमति के बिना सार्वजनिक रूप से साझा नहीं की जानी चाहिए। अन्य व्यक्तिगत जानकारी, जैसे आपका पता और टेलीफोन नंबर, डेटा संरक्षण अधिनियम 2018 के तहत संरक्षित है। Avinash Bajaj vs State ई-बे की सहायक कंपनी Bazee.Com के मामले में को अश्लील साहित्य बेचने के लिए उत्तरदायी ठहराया गया था। भारत में भी ऐसे कानून हैं जो निजता के अधिकार की रक्षा करते हैं। यह आई.पी.सी का बहुत पुराना प्रावधान है और 2000 में एक नया अधिनियम बनाया गया सूचना और प्रौद्योगिकी अधिनियम 2000 भी नागरिक के अधिकार की रक्षा करता है। भारतीय दंड संहिता (आई.पी.सी) की धारा 292 और सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी अधिनियम 2000 (आईटी अधिनियम) की धारा 66-66A- 67; सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी (मध्यवर्ती दिशानिर्देश और डिजिटल मीडिया आचार संहिता) नियम, 2021 मणिपुर वायरल वीडियो के मामले में यह स्पष्ट नहीं है कि इस पहलू पर विचार किया जा रहा है या नहीं। इसलिए किसी भी वीडियो को पोस्ट करने से पहले जो प्रकृति में व्यक्तिगत है या जो घटनाओं से कानून और व्यवस्था की स्थिति पैदा करने वाला है, उसे ट्विटर आदि जैसे सार्वजनिक प्लेटफार्मों पर पोस्ट करने के बजाय उचित प्राधिकारी को अग्रेषित करने की सलाह दी जाती है। विडंबना यह है कि सरकार भी कोई नीतिगत दिशानिर्देश लेकर नहीं आई है। लोग आमतौर पर पुलिस और उसके बाद की जांच से डरते हैं। सरकार द्वारा जारी दिशा-निर्देशों में स्व-विनियमित शिकायत निवारण का प्रावधान है। The link […]

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CAN PARLIAMENT SET UP SPECIAL COURT TO DISPOSE OFF PENDING MATTERS? A DISCUSSION AND SUGESSIONS

February 20, 2023

  Indians are a very tolerant community. Citizens are basically law-abiding. But as per data available there are more than 5 crore cases are pending in various courts across India. This includes criminal, civil, DRT, matrimonial, adoption, insolvency, and others. There is always vacancy for Judges and there is also friction between different stakeholders regarding the method of appointment. The pending cases are monetary disputes, land disputes, agricultural land, easement, flat purchasers right, and so on. This also includes international arbitration awards and their execution. When a suit is filed immediate party moves for ad-interim reliefs by way of a Notice of Motion or Interim Application as the case may be. When the order is passed same Notice of Motion comes up for a final hearing after 5 to 10 years. By that time if Plaintiff did not get the order he loses the edge and his right. Then suit may be on board for framing of Issues may be another 5-10 years. The next stage is the affidavit of evidence, admission denial of documents, and cross-examination of witnesses. When a decree is passed it takes time of 2 to 3 years for sealing. When the decree is ready for execution if not executed then we have to take out 21×22 notice in which takes another 2 years to reach and there may be objections. So, for Plaintiff entire exercise is futile. Citizens need a remedy that is speedy and result oriented. The matter doesn’t end here after the ad-interim there is an Appeal from the Order then the Supreme Court and so on and so forth. The litigation is unending and is also costly. To overcome this situation government introduced concept of mediation. It is not much successful. As far as Arbitration is concerned the new concept of institutional arbitration is introduced. It may have been successful but not much accepted by common people like new entrepreneurs, startups, and the common citizens. That is due to cost and fees of an arbitrator. Many petitions are filed in Supreme Court challenging fees of the arbitrator. (See ONGC vs Afcons Gunanusa JV) Does the question arise what is the remedy? The remedy lies in our constitution. Article 217 says the Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court.—(1) Every Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal and [shall hold office, in the case of an additional or acting Judge, as provided in article 224, and in any other case, until he attains the age of [sixty-two years]:] 126. Appointment of acting Chief Justice.—When the office of Chief Justice of India is vacant or when the Chief Justice is, by reason of absence or otherwise, unable to perform the duties of his office, the duties of the office shall be performed by such one of the other Judges of the Court as the President may appoint for the purpose. 127. Appointment of ad hoc Judges.—(1) If at any time there should not be a quorum of the Judges of the Supreme Court available to hold or […]

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COLLEGIUM CONTROVERSY AND CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY REPORT : WITHOUT PREJUDICE ANALYSIS

January 20, 2023

Is NJAC a violation of Article 368 or violates the theory of pith and substance?  To understand we must go back to the root of the matter.      Brief History This issue is neither constitutional nor legal. The issue is to decide the procedure for appointment of Judges in High Courts namely the High Court and Supreme Court. As such the debate on the procedure to appoint judges to higher courts was debated forcefully by several leading giant members of the Constituent Assembly. But no consensus was drawn. The details we shall see here are below. But before that somewhere in the year 1991 by order and Judgement of the Supreme Court, a system was designed by the name Collegium. In Collegium 6-8 Judges would consider candidates for the office of the higher court judges which includes the Chief Justice of  State and Supreme Court Collegium members. Who selects the candidates and forwards the names to the Law Ministry for scanning intelligence background. There is no other role of the Government in the selection process. The President in the course gives his assent and notifies. Is this a correct system that was dreamt by the makers of our Constitution? Or is hit by pith and substance? Link to read Judgement : https://indiankanoon.org/doc/753224/ Current scenario and the allegations: Over a period of time, this system was allegedly affected by nepotism and it is alleged that it has created a monopoly. There were news reports as well as reports of a senior lawyer at the bar that 50% of the Judges are relatives of the ex-Judges. In the meantime, the Government enacted a law called National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, 2014 ( NJAC ) which was abrogated and declared ultra-vires by the Supreme Court. This resulted in the continuity of the Collegium System. In its logical and practical argument that the Judiciary, it’s argued that the participation of politicians in the selection process may vitiate the independence of the judiciary. This danger was also visualized by the late Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. For the said reason though amendments were moved to adopt the American method of appointment of judges to the higher courts same were withdrawn by respective Constituent Assembly members. However, the late Dr. Ambedkar could not have thought of the situation persisting today about the collegium system which has allegedly resulted in the monopoly of a few families. Here is the link: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/govt-gives-collegium-proof-of-nepotism-in-picks-for-hc-judges/articleshow/65220425.cms https://www.hindustantimes.com/india/50-hc-judges-related-to-senior-judicial-members-report/story-S8RP2Ir9cEuIN4NewFnvML.html   With this background let us see the history of this issue and why it did not reach finality during the finalization of the Constitution of India.    The Government of India Act, 1919 provided in Section 101 for the Constitution of High Courts; and the appointment of the Chief Justice and the permanent Judges were in the absolute discretion of the Crown, subject only to the prescribed conditions of eligibility. The tenure of their office, according to Section 102, was dependent entirely on the Crown’s pleasure. Under the Government of India, Act, 1935, appointments of Judges of the Federal Court and the High Courts were at the absolute discretion of the Crown or, in other words, […]

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Collectors Land in Mumbai and Transfers

January 4, 2023

      An interesting question was asked on Twitter on collectors’ land. The question was whether it is legal to ask for transfer charges by Collector Mumbai for issuing NOC of flats in Society standing on land belonging to Collector? In Mumbai Collector owns nearly 1282 properties on which development is permitted and sanctioned on Lease. As per the latest data available about 517 properties’ Lease has been expired and in Mumbai leases of about 149 properties have been expired. The government has given this land on meager yearly lease rent. So the Government prescribed a policy for the increase in ground rent on 5th October 1999. Which was challenged and directions were given to give a hearing to those whose lease has been expired and also give an opportunity to convert occupancy to Class II occupants on one-time payments as specified in the Circular. The lease of land for purposes other than Agriculture is granted under provisions inter-alia of the Maharashtra Land Revenue Code, 1966 (“ Said Code” ) and the Maharashtra Land Revenue (Disposal of Government Lands) Rules, 1971 ( Said “ Rules”) . The Said Rule B-26 -27 empowers Collector to Grant Land for Residential use. It reads as under B. Grant of land for residential use 26. Disposal of building sites :- (1) Except as otherwise provided in these rules, the occupancy rights in building sites shall be disposed of by the Collector under Section 20 read with Section 31 by publication to the highest bidder, unless for reasons to be recorded in writing, the Collector thinks that in any particular case, there is reason for granting the land without auction. (2) Where a building site is to be disposed of without auction under sub-rule(1), the Collector shall dispose of the site in occupancy right under Section 20 read with Section 31 on inalienable tenure  [If the occupancy price determined under sub-rule(3) does not exceed Rs. 25,000 and with sanction of the Commissioner, if the occupancy price exceeds Rs. 25,000 but does not exceeds Rs. 1,00,000 and with the sanction of the State Government, in other cases.] (3) The Collector shall determine the occupancy price of the site, regard being had to the following factors that is to say, (a) the sale prices of similar lands in the locality; (b) the situation of the building site; (c) the availability of, and demand for, similar lands; (d) factors which are taken into account in determining the value of land under the Land Acquisition Act, 1894. 27. Grant of land housing schemes :-Building plots may be granted by the State Government for various housing schemes undertaken by any housing board, local authority or co-operative housing society constituted under any law for the time being in force, in occupancy rights under Section 40 on inalienable and impartible tenure on payment of such concessional occupancy price as the State Government may, from time to time fix, regard being had to the nature of the scheme, and in the case of a co-operative housing society, to the income of the members, thereof, such income being ascertained after making such inquiries […]

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CAN A COPARCENER/CO-OWNER SELL HIS/HER SHARE IN A JOINTLY OWNED PROPERTY TO A THIRD PARTY? RIGHT OF PREEMPTION AGRICULTURE LAND VS RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY

December 30, 2022

 Let us first see the provisions of the Transfer of Property Act 1882 and the Hindu Succession Act 1956. Section 22 of The Hindu Succession Act 1956 Section 22 of the Act is as under:- “22. Preferential right to acquire property in certain cases – (1) Where, after the commencement of this Act, an interest in any immovable property of an intestate, or in any business carried on by him or her, whether solely or in conjunction with others devolves upon two or more heirs specified in class I of the Schedule, and any one of such heirs proposes to transfer his or her interest in the property or business, the other heirs shall have a preferential right to acquire the interest proposed to be transferred. (2) The consideration for which any interest in the property of the deceased may be transferred under this section shall, in the absence of any agreement between the parties, be determined by the court on application being made to it in this behalf, and if any person proposing to acquire the interest is not willing to acquire it for the consideration so determined, such person shall be liable to pay all costs of or incident to the application. (3) If there are two or more heirs specified in class I of the Schedule proposing to acquire any interest under this section, that heir who offers the highest consideration for the transfer shall be preferred. Explanation.- In this section, “court” means the court within the limits of whose jurisdiction the immovable property is situate or the business is carried on, and includes any other court which the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf.” OBITER Smt. Laxmi Debi v. Surendra Kumar Panda and Others by the High Court of Orissa. In this case the submission that Section 22 of the Act would not cover succession in respect of agricultural lands was rejected.It was observed and held that “It is clear that the Parliament had omitted the phrase “save as regards agricultural land” from item No. 5 of the Concurrent List in order to have a uniform personal law for Hindus throughout India, and accordingly, it necessitated the enlargement of Entry No. 5. We have no doubt, therefore, that in view of the change in law, the Act will apply to agricultural lands also, and the decision in AIR 1941 FC 72 (K) would no longer hold good.” The High Court of Judicature at Allahabad, in Smt. Prema Devi vs. Joint Director of Consolidation (Headquarter) at Gorakhpur Camp and Ors. held:- In List 2, Entry No. 18 is as follows:– “Land, that is to say, right in or over land, land tenures including the relation of landlord and tenant, and the collection of rents; transfer and alienation of agricultural land; land improvement and agricultural loans; colonization.” This entry which is in the exclusive jurisdiction of the State Legislature is in the widest term. All laws relating to land and land tenures are therefore, within the exclusive jurisdiction of the State Legislature. Even personal law can become applicable to land tenures […]

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