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MODEL TENANCY ACT AND ABSENCE OF DEFINITION OF “LEAVE AND LICENSE” DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LICENSE AND TENANCY HOW TO DETERMINE?

July 11, 2021

Model Tenancy Act 2020 does not contain definition of Leave and License, why? This question crops up in layman’s mind. The definition of Leave and License is found in Section 52 of Indian Easement Act,1882. It defines term License as under:  “License” defined. -Where one person grants to another, or to a definite number of other persons, a right to do, or continue to do, in or upon the immovable property of the grantor, something which would, in the absence of such right, be unlawful, and such right does not amount to an easement or an interest in the property, the right is called a license. Maharashtra Rent Control Act,2000 defines term Licensee as under 7 (5) “Licensee”, in respect of any premises or any part thereof, means the person who is in occupation of the premises or such part, as the case may be, under a subsisting agreement for licence given for a licence fee or charge; and includes any person in such occupation of any premises or part thereof in a building vesting in or leased to a co-operative housing society registered or deemed to be registered under the Maharashtra Co-operative Societies Act, 1960; but does not include a paying guest, a member of a family residing together, a person in the service or employment of the licenser, or a person conducting a running business belonging to the licenser or a person having any accommodation for rendering or carrying on medical or para-medical services or activities in or near a nursing home, hospital, or sanitarium or a person having any accommodation in a hotel, lodging house, hostel, guest house, club, nursing home, hospital, sanitarium, dharmashala, home for widows, orphans or like premises, marriage or public hall or like premises, or in a place of amusement or entertainment or like institution, or in any premises belonging to or held by an employee or his spouse who on account of exigencies of service or provisions of residence attached to his or her post or office is temporarily not occupying the premises, provided that he or she charges licence fee or charge for such premises of the employee or spouse not exceeding the standard rent and permitted increase for such premises, and any additional sum for service supplied with such premises or a person having accommodation in any premises or part thereof for conducting a canteen, creche, dispensary or other services as amenities by any undertaking or institution; and the expressions “licence”, “licenser” and “premises given on licence” shall be construed accordingly; Delhi Rent Control Act,1995 defines term is Section 2(n) (ii) any person to whom a licence as defined in section 52 of the Indian Easements Act, 1882 (5 of 1882 .) has been granted; I did not find more such provision in different states rent laws except this two. Under the English law the terms “tenant”, “licence” and “licensee” are not defined and so in every case where the English Courts are called upon to consider whether the relationship between the parties before them is that of landlord and tenant or licensor and licensee, they have always to decide […]

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Bankruptcy Code flaws and escapes of bankruptcy Code

July 7, 2021

Insolvency and bankruptcy Code,2016 was enforced with big bang and with hope. Let us first understand the relevant  provisions of the law which is subject of discussion here. The Preamble of the Act indicates purpose of enactment. It says, “ An Act to consolidate and amend the laws relating to reorganisation and insolvency resolution of corporate persons, partnership firms and individuals in a time bound manner for maximisation of value of assets of such persons, to promote entrepreneurship, availability of credit and balance the interests of all the stakeholders including alteration in the order of priority of payment of Government dues and to establish an Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India, and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.” The provisions of this Code shall apply to— (a) any company incorporated under the Companies Act, 2013 or under any previous company law; (b) any other company governed by any special Act for the time being in force, except in so far as the said provisions are inconsistent with the provisions of such special Act; (c) any Limited Liability Partnership incorporated under the Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008; (d) such other body incorporated under any law for the time being in force, as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf; and (e) partnership firms and individuals, in relation to their insolvency, liquidation, voluntary liquidation or bankruptcy, as the case may be. “creditor” means any person to whom a debt is owed and includes a financial creditor, an operational creditor, a secured creditor, an unsecured creditor and a decree holder; “debt” means a liability or obligation in respect of a claim which is due from any person and includes a financial debt and operational debt; “default” means non-payment of debt when whole or any part or instalment of the amount of debt has become due and payable and is not repaid by the debtor or the corporate debtor, as the case may be.  “operational creditor” means a person to whom an operational debt is owed and includes any person to whom such debt has been legally assigned or transferred;  “operational debt” means a claim in respect of the provision of goods or services including employment or a debt in respect of the repayment of dues arising under any law for the time being in force and payable to the Central Government, any State Government or any local authority; Submission of resolution plan. – (1) A resolution applicant may submit a resolution plan [along with an affidavit stating that he is eligible under section 29A] to the resolution professional prepared on the basis of the information memorandum.(2) The resolution professional shall examine each resolution plan received by him to confirm that each resolution plan- (a) provides for the payment of insolvency resolution process costs in a manner specified by the Board in priority to the [payment] of other debts of the corporate debtor; [(b) provides for the payment of debts of operational creditors in such manner as may be specified by the Board which shall not be less than – (i) the amount to be paid to such creditors in […]

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